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58 Cards in this Set

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Define Consciousness.
The personal awareness of mental activities, internal sensations, and the external environment.
What did William James describe consciousness as?
A stream, it flows without breaking and is always changing.
What are the 4 stages of consciousness?
1-Directed
2-Flowing
3-Divided
4-Daydreaming
Explain the stage of consciousness---Directed.
Focused consciousness: paying attention to one stimuli (can stay in this state for a long period of time).
Explain the state of consciousness---Flowing.
Your thoughts drift: most of the day
one thought will stimulate something else and so on.
Explain the state of consciousness---Divided.
Doing 2 things that require our consciousness or awareness *muiltasking*
We can do some things with divided consciousness--usually things that we are very familar with,
Explain the state of consciousness---Daydreaming.
Daydreaming is a period of time that is flowed but not bound by reality.
Daydreaming has a bad repuation but it is benefical for your mental health. Most people daydream several times a day. Daydreaming can be a way of planning, dealing with conflict, preparing for things...etc...
What is Circadian Rhythm?
Biological and psychological processes that systematically vary over a 24-hour period.
What is the Suprachaismatic Nucleus (SCN)
A cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus that rules the timing of the circadian rhythms. It is an internal pacemaker.
What are "free-running conditions" and how are they created?
Created by the absence of environmental time cues like sunlight/clocks.

With the absence of these, these things happen:

1-with the absence of environmental time cues like light people drift into a 25-hour-day and go to sleep an hour later each night

2-Circadian rhythms lose their normal sychronization.
What does Melatonin do?
It is manufactured in the pineal gland and increased blood levels of it make you sleepy and reduce activity levels.
-Shortly after sunrise the pineal gland all but stops producing melatonin and you soon wake up.
What is NREM sleep?
What is REM sleep?
-Non Rapid Eye Movement
-Rapid Eye Movement
What are the four stages of NREM sleep?
1-Awake
2-True Sleep
3-Slow Wave Sleep / Delta Wave Sleep
4-Slow Wave Sleep / Delta Wave Sleep
Explain the first stage of sleep.
The first stage of sleep is while you're awak your brain is producing Beta Waves (alertness) then the brain waves begin to change into Alpha Waves (drowsiness. With the slower waves comes relaxation and sleepiness in your body. You become less aware if surrounding stimuli.
Explain the second stage of sleep.
Theta waves begin to emerge.
What is common between stage 3 and 4 of NREM sleep?
They are similar except for the amount of brain activity.
What is REM sleep?
Increased brain activity and you begin to dream, but your brain waves change to waves that look like you are awake and alert. You have rapit eye movements as if you are viewing something. On average you get 5-7 dreams a night.
Who discovered REM sleep?
Eugene Aserinsky and Nathaniel Kleitman.
What happens when you dream?
Increased heartrate and resporitory rate when you are dreaming. Your body becomes paralyzed so you don't act out your dreams.
What is REM Rebound?
A phenomenon in which a person who is deprived of REM sleep greatly increases the amount of time spent in REM sleep at the first opportunity to sleep uninterrupted.
Explain the adaptive theory of sleep.
The view that the unique sleep patterns of different animals evolved over time to help promote survival and environmental adaptation.
Explain the restorative theory of sleep.
The view that sleep and dreaming are essential to normal physical and mental functioning.
Define sleep disorders.
Serious disturbances in the normal sleep patterns that interfere with daytime functioning and cause distress.
Define Insomnia.
Condition in which a person regularly experiences an inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or feel rested by sleep. Not uncommon. Restless Leg Syndrome can be a side effect.
Define Sleep Apnea.
A sleep disorder in which the person stops breathing during sleep. It is as if your brain forgets to breath.
Define Sleepwalking.
Also called somnambulism. It is a sleep disturbance that is an episode of walkinf or performing other actions during stage 3 or 4 of NREM sleep. Usually not associated with dreaming. The person is able to walk around because they are not paralyzed.
Define Night Terrors.
A sleep disturbance caused by an episode of increased psychological arousal, intense fear and panic, frightening hallucinations and no memory of the episode the next day---typically occurs during stages 3 and 4 of NREM sleep.
Define REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.
A sleep disorder in which the sleeper acts out his or her dreams.
Define Narcolepsy.
A sleep disorder characterized b excessive daytime sleepiness and brief lapses into sleep throughout the day. Organic condition that allows REM sleep (dreams) into the waking hours.
-Sometimes these people experience catapexy which is a sudden loss of voluntary muscle strength and control that is usually triggered by an intense emotion.
-Can be treated with anphetamines.
Define Sleep Brocsizm.
Grinding your teeth during sleep.
In what ways can you alter your consciousness?
-drugs
-lack of sleep
-medication
-stress
-hypnosis
-sleeping
What are the main characteristics of dreams?
Intense emotions
Why do we forget dreams?
Because the changes in the brain chemistry during sleep makes the process of storing it in your memory difficult. The frontal lobe is shut down during REM sleep.
When do we remeber dreams?
When we wake up during the actual dream.
Explain Sigmund Freud's manifest and latent content
Manifest-elements of the dream that are experience and remembered by the dreamer

Lantent-The disguised psychological meaning of the dream.
What are Freud's views on dreams?
Said dreams are based on sexual and aggressive tendencies. Certain things like building may represent and man while shoes may represent a woman.
What is Hypnosis?
Cooperative social interaction in which the person responds to the hypnotist's suggestions with changes in perception, memory, and behavior.
Who are the best candiates for hypnosis?
People who are willing to participate and people who daydream a lot and have good imaginations.
What is posthypnotic suggestion?
idk
What is posthypnotic amnesia?
idk
What is Hypermnesia?
idk
Explain Ernest Hilgard's Neodissociation Theory.
The theory suggests that hypnotic effects are due to the splitting of consciousness into two simultaneous streams of memory activity.

Only one of which is the participant consciously aware during the hypnosis.
What is medication?
Techniques that create an alter state of focused attention and heightened awareness.
What are the effects of medication?
-lowered state of psychological arousal
-decrease in heartrate
-lowered blood pressure
-changes in brain waves
-enhanced physical and psychological functioning
Define Psychoactive Drugs.
Chemical substances that alter consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior.
What are the 4 catagories of Psychoactive Drugs?
1-Depressants
2-Opiates
3-Stimulants
4-Psychedelic Drugs
What is Addiction?
A condition in which a person feel psychologically and physically compelled ro take a specific drug.
Explain Physical Dependence.
idk
Explain Drug Tolerance.
idk
Explain Drug Rebound.
idk
What are Depressants?
idk
What is alcohol and what are its effects?
Alcohol is a depressant that depresses the activity of neurons in the brain and impairs concentration, memory, speech, balance, etc.
What are Opiates?
Drugs that relieve pain and produce euphoria by mimicking the brain's own natural pain killer endorphins.
What is Heroin and what are the effects?
idk
What are Stimulants?
Drugs that increase brain activity, arouse behavior, and increase mental alertness.
What is caffeine and what are the effects?
idk
What are Psychedelic Drugs?
Drugs that create perceptional distortions, alter mood, and affect thinking.
What is Marijuana and what are the effects?
Psychedelic drug that creates a sense of well being, mild euphoria, and dreamy state of relaxation.