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38 Cards in this Set

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Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on _____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on _____.
rod cells; cone cells
Maria could not see color and had difficulty seeing in very bright light. She had difficulty seeing the fine details of objects. Maria most likely had damage to her ____.
cones
If a person views three lights that differ only in amplitude, the person would perceive the lights as
differing in brightness
Where does information from one eye cross over to the other side of the brain?
optic chiasm
When your psychology professor is speaking to your class, she can tell which students are sitting in the first, second, third, etc., row, in part because students in the closer rows obstruct his/her view of students in more distant rows. This illustrates the depth perception cue of
interposition
Michael had an operation on his right eye & has to wear an eye patch for 3 weeks. While wearing the eye patch, Michael will lose his ability to
use binocular depth cues
Which BEST describes how we hear according to place theory?
A. Different sound frequencies vibrate different portions of the basilar membrane, producing
different pitches.
B. Our perception of pitch corresponds to the rate or frequency at which the entire basilar
membrane vibrates.
C. We perceive the differences in pitch according to the number of hair cells that vibrate at any one time
A.
What are the 4 primary tastes?
sweet, sour, salty, bitter
The only sensory system that does NOT send information to the thalamus before it is sent to the cortex is
smell
The major difference between a green light and a blue light is the
wavelength
If a piano player softly taps a key and then hits the same key with a lot of force, the second note will sound louder because of a difference in the ____of the sound wave
amplitude
When we view cars parked on a distant parking lot, we know that the cars are not actually the size of toy cars because of perceptual
constancy
The ___________ sense has to do with our sense of balance.
vestibular
Adam leaves his soccer equipment in the middle of the kitchen floor. His mom wants him to learn to put it away so that he puts it away every time he gets home. Every time Adam cleans up his soccer stuff and puts it away, his mom stops nagging him. Soon, Adam puts his soccer things away when he gets home every time. This is an example of
negative reinforcement
The fluid-filled tunnel that contains the receptors for hearing is the
cochlea
The auditory receptor cells are the
hair cells
A variety of physical stimuli including mechanical, thermal, and chemical energy are the stimuli for the sense of
touch
An unlearned reaction to a stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning is
an unconditioned response
A previously neutral stimulus, that through conditioning acquires the capacity to evoke a
response is
an unconditioned stimulus
The reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction and a period of rest is called
spontaneous recovery
Warren’s cat has learned to purr and rub against him whenever the cat hears the sound of the can opener because Warren uses the can opener to give the cat her favorite canned food. Lately, Warren has noticed that his cat behaves the same way when Warren uses his blender.
What is Warren’s cat demonstrating?
stimulus generalization
In a fixed ratio schedule, the reinforcement is given
after a set number of nonreinforced responses
When describing schedules of reinforcement, the key factor in interval schedules is
elapsed time
Which of the following is NOT an example of punishment?
a. Laughing at a classmate when he asks a “dumb question” in class
b. Nagging a child until she picks up her toys
c. Taking away a child’s TV privileges for one week for a bad report card
d. Making a child sit in the corner for 10 minutes for back talk.
B – this is an example of taking away something unpleasant after the behavior. Punishment requires
presenting something negative or taking away something pleasant/liked.
Skinner believed that reinforcement was necessary for an operant behavior to be acquired.
Observational learning, however, demonstrates that a behavior can also be acquired as a result of
seeing another person's behavior and the reinforcement of his or her behavior
The process of locating and recovering information from your memory store is
retrieval
Which level of processing, according to Craik & Lockhart, should result in the longest lasting memory codes?
semantic encoding
What kind of memory preserves information in its original form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second?
sensory
The ___component of working memory serves as the interface between working and long-term memory.
episodic buffer
A visit to your elementary classroom might help you remember more of the names of some of
your elementary classmates because you are
a. using the serial position effect
b. relying on a flashbulb memory
c. in the same context as you were when you learned them
d. relying on schemas to enhance the retrieval process
C.
When an individual’s memory for an event is altered by the later introduction of inaccurate or
misleading information, it is referred to as the
misinformation effect
An essay exam is most similar to the ____ method of measuring retention
recall
If forgetting occurs because newly learned information impairs the memory of previously
learned information it is referred to as
retroactive interferance
The principle that proposes that the values of a retrieval cue depends on how well it
corresponds to the memory code is known as
encoding specificity
A person has a head injury, and as a result, loses his memory of events that happened before the injury. This is an example of
retrograde amnesia
Your memory of how to do something, such as how to shoot a free throw in basketball, is
contained in your
procedural memory
Your memory for personal facts and events consisting of memories of things you did and
when you did them is contained in
episodic memory
Which area of the brain is associated with the consolidation of long-term memories
hippocampus