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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Apoptosis
the self-destruction of a cell programmed by intrinsic "suicide" instrutions
Chemical Messenger
a substance produced and released by a cell to modify the activity of that cell or another cell
Autocrine Agent
A cemical messenger that modifies the activity of the secreting cell
Paracrine Agent
a chemical messenger that modifies the activity of a "nearby" cell
Neurotransmitter
a chemical messenger released by nerve cells to communicatewith nerve cells or effector cells
Hormone
a chemical meddenger synthesized by specific endocrine glands in response to specific stimuli and released into the blood to modify the activity of specific target cells
Neurohormone
a chemical messenger synthesized by specific cells of the CNS and released into the blood to modify the activity of specific target cells
Receptor
a specific protein located in either the plasma membrane or interior of a target cell with which a chemical messenger combines to exert its effects
Specificity
the ability of a recptor to react with only one chemical messenger or family of chemicals
Affininty
the strength with which a chemical messenger binds to its receptor
Competition
the ability of diferent molecules with similar chemical structure to bind to the same receptor
Saturation
the degree to which all the receptors for a given chemical messenger are occupied
Agonist
a chemical messenger that binds to a receptor and stimulates the cellular response
Antagonist
a chemical messenger that binds to a receptor, does not simulate a cellular response, and blocks the binding of the normal chemical messenger
Receptor Down-Regulation
a decrease in receptor number in a target cell due to the chronically high concentration of chemical messenger
Receptor Up-Regulation
an increase in receptor number in a target cell due to the chronically low concentration of a chemical messenger
Supersensitivity
the increased reponsiveness of a target cell to a given chemical messenger due to receptor up-regulation
Receptor Activation
the process bu which the receptor changes shape upon binding the chemical messenger and begins the initiation of a cellular response through signal transduction
Signal Transduction
the sequence of events betweenreceptor activation and the final cellular response
Synergistic Effect
the ability of two chemical messengers to produce a net effect that is the greater than the sum of the individual effects
Additive Effect
the ability of two chemical messengers to produce a net effect tht is the sum of the individual effects
Permissive Effect
the ability of one chemical messenger to "allow" a second chemical messenger to exert its effect on a targert cell