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22 Cards in this Set

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Necrosis is?
death of group of cells w/in living body caused by injurious agent
Post-necrotic changes are?
(3)
Nuclear changes
-cytoplasmic change
-architectural changes
Nuclear changes include?
pyknosis
karyorrhexis
karyolysis
cytoplasmic change is?
swollen cell
Architectural changes...
depend on whether denaturation of proteins or enzymatic digestion
Types of Necrosis
Types of necrosis
They depend on the balance between protein denaturation(cell coagulation) and cell lysis and include? (7)
1. coagulative necrosis
2. colliquative necrosis
3. caseous necrosis
4. enzymatic fat necrosis
5. traumatic fat necrosis
6. fibrinoid necrosis
7. gangrene
Coagulative necrosis is the most ?
common type of necrosis(all tissue xcept brain-abscesses)
-caused by: ischemia
-necrotic cells retain their outline
Naked eye appearance of coagulative necrosis presents?
microscopic appearance?
N.E.- area appears PALE, firm and swollen
Mic- 1. cells devoid of nucleiappear as mass of pink homogenous cytoplasm
2. keep outline for several days till removed by phagocytosis
colliquative (liquefactive) necrosis.

the mechanism is?
necrotic tissue presents?
cell lysis prevails over protewin denaturation-
2. soft-liquid like
Causes of colliquative necrosis is?
1. necrotic lesions of BRAIN: more abundant lysosomal enzymes and lack of good struct support
2. ABSCESS
causes of caseous Necrosis is? the mechanisms are?
cause is TB.
mechanism: coagulative necrosis w/ partial liquefication
2. necrotic cells neither retain outline
3. appear as amorphous debris
4. grossly, debris appear grayish white (cheesy)
5. resembles clumpy cheese, hence the name CASEOUS NECROSIS
Enzymatic necrosis cause?
mechanism?
**Chalky white***
cause: release of pancreatic
enzymes into surrounding tissue (e.g. traumatic injury, acute pancreas)
Mechanism: phospholipases and proteases attack plasma membrane o fat cells and lipases split triglyc into FA. clacium soaps; hard chalky white patches
Traumatic fat necrosis causes?
mechanisms?
trauma to fatty tissue e.g breast, subcutaneous
-Mechanism- release of intracellular fat---> acute inflam and fibrosis----> firm mass mistaken for breast cancer
Fibrinoid necrosis is?
Causes?
Loss of normal structure
causes: malignant hypertension
2. autoimmune diseases; synovial membranes in RA.
Gangrene
Definition?
Types?
def: mass necrosis of tissue due to vascular occlusion followed by putrefaction

Types-
1. dry gangrene
2. wet gangrene
3. gas gangrene
Dry gangrene occurs in?
toes and feet due to gradual occlusion of arteries.
**atherosclerosis due to diabetes----> coagulative necrosis
-tissue is mummified and black
- LINE OF DEMARCATION
Wet gangrene occurs in?
limbs (crush injury) and internal organs, occlusion of both artery and vein
-severe bacterial infection, liquefaction of dead tissue and toxemia (LIQUEFACTIVE NECROSIS)
Gas gangrene causes?
-both tissue necrosis and putrefaction are caused by BACTERIA
- contamination of DEEP WOUNDS involving muscles w/ CLOSTRDIUM PERFINGENS
- extensive tissue necrosis, CRACKLING SENSATION ON PALPATION
Apoptosis definition?
death of single cells w/in clusters of other cells.
apoptosis differs from necrosis and represents a physiological process where....
abnormal cells die and are then eliminated
Pathological cause of apoptosis is..
cell injury in viral hepatitis----> apoptotic bodies called COUNCILMAN BODIES, taken by liver cells.