Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
•Fighting load carrying equipment
- Pistol belt
- Suspenders
- Field pack
• Bivouac equipment
- Canteen and cup
- First Aid packet
- E-tool
- Bayonet or K-bar
- Mess kit
- Poncho & liner
- Shelter half
• Protective equipment
- Hat and mosquito net
- Helmet and liner
- Camouflage cover
• Special issue equipment
- Flack jacket
- Sleeping bag
- Sleeping mat
a. A hasty/skirmisher’s position
- Shallow pit that provides limited protection while firing from the prone position
- Made quickly by scraping soil to build a shallow ridge, or parapet, between the rifleman and the enemy
- Trench is body-length
b. An improved one man fighting position
- Made as small as possible to present smallest target to the enemy
- Constructed with a water sump, firing step, grenade sump and parapet
- Built as wide as the occupants shoulders, and as tall as the occupant standing on the firing step
- Provides protection form tanks passing over
c. An improved two man fighting position
- Essentially two, one-person positions
- Close proximity to buddy provides security
- Allows one to rest while others sleeps
- Since the position is longer than a one-person position, it provides less protection from tanks, bombing, strafing and shelling.
general rules of camouflage
- Take advantage of all available natural concealment
- Camouflage by altering the form, shadow, texture, and color of objects
- Camouflage against both ground and air observations
- Camouflage in constant and continuous
CAMO a. Fighting position
- Before beginning construction, not the terrain and vegetation. The goal is to camouflage the position to this same appearance.
- Obtain material from a wide area
- Do not use more material than needed
- Cover excavated soil with vegetation or dump in streams, ravines or under brush
- Inspect the position form the enemy’s viewpoint
- Vary your route to avoid making paths to the position
b. Personal equipment
- Field uniforms and equipment are colored to blend in with terrain. Faded or shiny items need to be surveyed or darkened with paint.
- When op paint is available, use mud, charcoal, or crushed grass.
- Alter the outline of your helmet with a cloth cover or foliage
c. Individual
- All exposed skin, even dark skin, reflects light.
- Apply face paint sticks whenever possible, using the following combinations:
- Loam & light green for light skin personnel in other than snow regions
- Sand & dark green for dark skinned personnel in other than snow regions
- Loam & white for all personnel in snow regions
- Applying paints
- Paint shiny areas (forehead, cheeks, nose, chin, hands, wrists, neck) with the darker color
- Paint shadow areas (around eyes, under nose and chin) with the lighter color.
- Use the buddy system to check application
- When paint is not available, use burnt cork, charcoal or lampblack
d. Vehicles
- If possible, park under natural cover
- Park so the vehicle shape will disappear into natural surroundings
- When cut foliage is used
- Ensure it is placed as it grows. The underside of leaves are lighter than the top.
- Replace as soon as it begins to wither
- Drape nets/Camouflage Nets
- Easily assemble and provide adequate concealment against direct observation
- Can be detected by photographic observation because the artificial camouflage does not blend in with the background completely.
e. Buildings
- Vary rooflines with wooden framework, then cover with burlap or fine-mesh netting
- Erect superstructures over new building to make it resemble surrounding native buildings
- For existing structures
- Cover with screens of garnished netting
- Paint disruptive patterns over netting, roof, and gable-end walls
- When the slope of a roof is greater than 30 degrees, netting must cover the whole building.
- Paint roofs to match surrounding terrain
f. Supply points
- Access roads and tracks running in and out of the point can be concealed by slinging netting between trees.
- Control traffic to avoid large convoys
- Control debris, such as empty boxes, so it does not accumulate and give the position away.
g. Water points
- Must camouflage storage tanks, pumps, purification equipment, and personnel
- Place burlap covers or foliage over shiny surfaces.
- Conceal open areas where vehicles or personnel will have to traverse to get to a water point
- Institute a water supply schedule to avoid a concentration of waiting vehicles or personnel
- Protection from enemy fire
- A hill is natural cover
- A parapet is artificial cover
• Concealment
- Protection from observation
- Bushes, grass, and shadows are natural concealment
- Burlap, tents, or nets are artificial concealment
• Overhead flares
- When an overhead flare goes off, immediately seek cover as low as possible and do not move until the light burns out
• Ground flares
- Move quickly and quietly out of the light
military aspects of terrain
- Various combinations of weather and topography give certain qualities to an area.
- These qualities known as the military Aspects of Terrain, must be closely evaluated by each unit leader.
• Reconnaissance
- Physical reconnaissance is most reliable, but additional resources include
- Arial reconnaissance and photographs
- Maps of the area
- Terrain models provided by higher authority
- Intelligence reports
- Patrolling
- Friendly natives, undercover agents, or captured prisoners
Kkey terrain features
- Any area that provides a marked advantage over the enemy
- Terrain that provides superior observation and fields of fire
- Obstacles that could prevent enemy movement, such as possession of roads, bridges, and rivers
- Terrain needed for future operations, such as an airfield
- O- observation and Fields of Fire
- Observation is the key to
- Deliver effective fire on enemy
- Control troop maneuvers
- Prevent surprise by enemy
- Fields of Fire are areas where weapons can be fired effectively upon the enemy
- Need to extend to the range of the weapon
- If clearing is necessary, ensure fire lanes do not disclose the defensive position
- C- Cover and Concealment
- Apply principals previously discussed to guard position
- O- Obstacles
- Obstructions used to stop or disrupt enemy movement
- Natural obstacles are rivers, mountains, lakes, etc
- Artificial obstacles include mine fields, barbed wire, trenches, etc
- A- Avenues of Approach
- Suitable route of movement to an objective
- Often the weak spots in a defense
- Must be effectively covered with weapons fire and barricades
- May be used by the defending force to launch a counterattack
• With a Compass Rose (picture of compass card)
- Place map on a flat surface
- Place an open Lensatic compass on the map’s compass rose with the sighting wire lying directly over the map’s magnetic north line.
- Turn the map and compass together until the north arrow of the compass is aligned with the index line of the compass
- The map is now orientated
five basic colors used and how they applied to a military map
• Black- Man-made features and cultural areas
• Blue: water features such as lakes and rivers
• Green: vegetation
• Brown: all relief features such as contour lines
• Red: main roads, built up areas and special features, enemy positions
• Military Grid System
- Provides a uniform system for referencing and making measurements
- Grids are two sets of equally spaced, parallel, straight lines intersecting at right angles, forming a series of squares
- Each grid line is a unit of measure, permits linear and angular measurement
- Grid is drawn over a geographic projection
• Reading a Grid Square
- Each grid line is labeled on the edge by two digit numbers called Principle Digits.
- A grid square is identified by the two sets of principle digits that compose the square.
- The rule for reading grids is read right first then up
• Scales
- Graphic Scale- Tells the size of each grid. Found in the legend printed on the map
- Ratio Scale- A comparison between map distance and ground distance.
• Use a coordinate scale, or protractor, to get a grid coordinate of a point not on a grid square
- Ensure the map scale and coordinate scale match
- Place the zero-zero point of the scale at the loser left corner of the grid square
- Keeping the horizontal line of the scale on top of the bottom horizontal grid line, slide it to the right until the vertical line of the scale touches the point being measured
- Read the coordinates RIGHT and UP and add them after the respective set of principle digits
a. Topographic map
- Portrays terrain and landforms in a measurable form as well as the horizontal positions of the features represented
- Vertical positions, or relief, are normally represented by contours.
- Care of maps
- Fold the map properly
- Carry it in a waterproof packet
- Use light lines when marking
b. Lensatic compass
- Use Defining an Azimuth
- Compasses are used to describe direction
- The most common military method of describing direction is through azimuths
- An azimuth is a horizontal angle, measured in a clockwise manner from a north base line.
- Azimuth
- Azimuths are described in terms of degrees or mils
- One circle has 360 degrees or 6400 mils
- Use Center Hold Method
- Open the cover of the compass so it forms a straight edge with the compass base
- Pull the eyepiece as far to the rear as possible, perpendicular to the compass base.
- Align the slot in the eyepiece with the hairline sighting wire in the cover and with the target
- Read the azimuth by glancing down at the dial through the lens.
- Use Compass
- Compass features at night use
- Luminous markings
- Bezel ring three degrees or 53 1/3 mils per click
- Using the Bezel ring
- Set the azimuth before it gets dark
- Turning the ring to the left increases the azimuth
- Left decreases the azimuth
- Care
- Use non-permanent markers when possible. Handle the compass with care
- The dial is set at a delicate balance and shock could damage it
- Close and return the compass to its case when not in use
- Never take readings near metal or communications gear
- Situation- Mission
- Execution
- Administration and logistics
- Command and signal
a. Salute
- Size of the enemy unit
- Activity of the enemy
- Location of the enemy unit
- Uniform worn by the enemy
- Time of each activity noted
- Equipment used or carried by the enemy
- Situation
- Divided into three categories
- Enemy Forces
- Size, location, capabilities, and recent activities
- Friendly forces
- Mission of higher, supporting and adjacent units
- Identify who is providing security
- Attachments
- Types and size of attachments
- Time they attach
- Mission
- States mission in clear and concise statements
- Mission is unit specific- what we are to accomplish
- Execution
- Assigns definite tasks to each element of the command, organic or attached, that contributes to carrying out the whole mission
- No restrictions are set on the number of paragraphs, although information is typically divided into three areas
- Concept of operation
- Brief summary of the tactical plan the unit is to execute
- Tasks
- Or missions, for each unit, to include the reserve if applicable
- If this is the squad leaders SMEAC, each fire team would be tasked in this section
- Coordinating instruction
- Actions upon contact, MOPP level, route, etc
- Administration and logistics
- Addresses all administrative, supply, or transportation concerns
- Beans- distribution of food
- Bullets- quantity of ammo and re-supply information
- Band-Aids- location of corpsman, med-evac plan
- Bad guys- POW handling instructions
- Command and signal
- Chain of command and communications information given in two parts
- Communications instructions- typically an annex of standard reports, but also includes passwords and countersigns, radio call signals, frequencies, etc
- Chain of command- gives precedence of command and location of command posts
b. Spot
- Detailed report of an enemy engagement
- Always follow a SALUTE up with a SPOT report after engagement has ended
- Report includes
- All information contained in a SALUTE
- Friendly and enemy KIA or WIA
- POW’s and enemy equipment
• Security Patrols
- Provide physical security
• Reconnaissance patrols
- Defensive technique used to
- Detect enemy movement toward the unit’s position
- Locate or observe an enemy position
- Discover enemy avenues of approach
• Patrol leader uses 12 steps to plan a patrol
- Study the mission
- Plan use of time
- Study the terrain and situation
- Organize the patrol
- Select personnel, weapons, and equipment
- Issue the warning order
- Coordinate
- Make reconnaissance
- Complete detailed plans
- Issue patrol order
- Supervise, inspect, rehearse, and re-inspect
- Execute the mission
priorities of establishing a defense
- Surprise
- Security
- Unity of command
- Mass
- S- security
- A- place automatic and crew-served weapons
- F- clear fields of fire
- E- emplacements
- Considers four defensive principles of war:
- Surprise
- Security
- Unity of command
- Mass
three echelons of a defense
• Forward Defense Area (FDA)
- Area where frontline defensive positions are dug
• Security Area
- Area in front of FDA
- Security patrols roam this area
- Listening/observation posts are placed here
• Reserve Area
- Area behind FDA that reserve forces occupy
a. Call for fire for indirect weapon support
• Request for indirect fire, as in mortars or artillery support, is termed “Call for Fire”
- Observer requesting support calls into Fire Direction Control (FDC)
- FDC plots the request on a firing board and transposes the information into firing data
- FDC announces this data to the mortar crew as fire commands
six elements of a call for fire
- Observer identification
- Target location
- Method of engagement
- Warning order
- Target description
- Method of fire and control
b. Fire commands for direct weapon support
• Fire Commands
- Instructions used to direct and control fire of a squad
- Used when a squad leader decides to fire on a target
- Use the acronym ADDRAC
- Alert- alert the unit that a command is coming
- Direction- indicate the target’s location
- Description- Give a very brief description of the target
- Range- To the target to be engaged
- Assignment- Tell who is to fire on the target
- Control- (fire control) give the signal to open fire
ADDRAC for fire commands
- Alert- alert the unit that a command is coming
- Direction- indicate the target’s location
- Description- Give a very brief description of the target
- Range- To the target to be engaged
- Assignment- Tell who is to fire on the target
- Control- (fire control) give the signal to open fire
three combat positions on an individual fire plan sketch
• Fire plan sketch has three combat positions:
- Primary firing position
- Backbone of the defense, receives the full force of the enemy’s attack
- Alternate firing position
- Fall back position used if the primary position is in danger of being over run
- Should have the same sector of fire as primary
- Supplementary firing position
- Sector of fire covers the flank or rear
fire and fire discipline
• Fire Discipline• Sectors of fire
• Area assigned to an individual
• Area assigned to an individual
- Pie shaped section with edges called lateral limits
- Lateral limits extend from the firing position to an easily identifiable terrain feature
• Sectors of fire
- Two stakes are placed near the firing position to indicate lateral limits during darkness
- Sectors of fire interlock to ensure mutual support by adjacent units
• Fire Discipline
- The ability to efficiently apply fire on a target
- Dependent on the ability of the leader and the discipline and control of the crew. Includes
- The ability to select and designate targets.
- Preserve element of surprise by opening fire at the desired moment only
- Regulate the rate of fire.
- Shift from one target to another
- Adjust and cease-fire.
• A squad
• A squad is composed of 14 people
- 1 squad leader
- 1 grenadier
- 3 fire team leaders
- 3 automatic riflemen
- 3 riflemen #1
- 3 riflemen #2
a. Squad leader
- PO1 with an M16, but only fires in critical situation
- Responsible for the training, appearance, discipline and readiness of the squad
- Controls fire discipline, fire control, and maneuvering
b. Grenadier
- PO3 armed with an M203
- Responsible for the employment and care of the 203
- Remains close to the squad leader in combat
c. Fire team leader
- PO2 with an M16, but only fires in critical situations
- Leads and controls fire team
- Acts as the assistant squad leader
d. Automatic rifleman
- PO3 with a fully automatic M16
- Backbone of the fire team, provides heavy fire power
- Acts as the assistant fire team leader
e. Rifleman number 1
- E3 with an M16 whose primary duty is to carry extra ammo for the automatic rifleman
- Protects flank and acts as a scout
- Takes control of the automatic rifle if automatic rifleman becomes a casualty
f. Rifleman number 2
- E3 or E2 with an M16
- Acts as point man and occasionally a scout
- Protects the flank of the fire team
Code of Conduct
• Article I- I am an American, fighting in the forces, which guard my country and our way of life. I am prepared to give my life in their defense.
• Article II- I will never surrender of my own free will. If in command, I will never surrender the members of my command while they still have the means to resist.
• Article III- if I am captured, I will continue to resist by all means available. I will make every effort to escape and aid other to escape.
• Article IV- If I become a Prisoner of War, I will keep faith with my fellow prisoners. I will give no information or take part in any action, which might be harmful to my comrades. If I am senior, I will take command. If not, I will obey the lawful orders of those appointed over me and will back them up in every way.
• Article V- when questioned, should I become a prisoner of war, I am required to give my name, rank, service number, and date of birth. I will evade answering further questions to the utmost of my ability. I will make no oral or written statements disloyal to my country and its Allies or harmful to their cause.
• Article VI- I will never forget that I am an American, fighting for freedom, responsible for my actions, and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. I will trust in my God and in the United States of America.
handling detainees/Enemy Prisoner of War (EPW)
• Potentially a valuable source of information
• Remember the 5-S’s in handling EPW’s
- Search: for weapons and documents
- Secure: ensure escape is impossible
- Silence: do not allow EPW’s to talk to each other
- Segregate: into groups by rank, gender, and status (deserter, civilian, EPW, etc)
- Speed: timely deliver of information obtained from EPW’s is essential
5-S’s in handling EPW’s
- Search: for weapons and documents
- Secure: ensure escape is impossible
- Silence: do not allow EPW’s to talk to each other
- Segregate: into groups by rank, gender, and status (deserter, civilian, EPW, etc)
- Speed: timely deliver of information obtained from EPW’s is essential
deadly force would normally be authorized
• Deadly force is only used as a last resort
• Authorized under the following conditions:
- Self defense or defense of others when lesser means will not work
- Defense of property vital to national security
- Defense of property dangerous to others (weapons, ammunition, etc)
- To prevent the escape of a prisoner likely to cause death or serious bodily injury to another
eleven general orders of a sentry
1. To take charge of this post and all government property in view
2. To walk my post in a military manner, keeping always on the alert and observing everything that takes place within sight or hearing
3. To report violations of orders I am instructed to enforce
4. To repeat all calls from posts more distant from the guardhouse than my own
5. To quit my post only when properly relieved
6. To receive, obey and pass on to the sentry who relieves me all orders from the commanding officer, officer of the day, and officers and noncommissioned officers of the guard only.
7. To talk to no one except in the line of duty
8. To give the alarm in case of fire or disorder
9. To call the corporal of the guard in any case not covered by instructions
10. To salute all officers and all colors and standards no cased.
11. To be especially watchful at night, and during the time for challenging, to challenge all persons on or near my post and to allow no one to pass without proper authority
three classes of wire entanglement
• Tactical wire
• Protective wire
- Prevents close surprise attacks
- Placed around each fighting position at hand grenade range (131’ - 328’)
• Supplementary wire
- Placed to conceal the exact line of tactical wire
a. Triple standard concertina fence
- Consists of two lines of concertina serving as the base, with a third resting on top
- On average, a platoon can place 984 foot section in an hour
b. Double-apron fence
- Two types
- 4 and 2 pace fence, which is more common and more effective, and 6 and 3 pace fence
- a 984 foot section usually requires 1 ½ hours for a platoon to complete
c. Low wire entanglement (tanglefoot)
- A 4 and 2 pace double apron fence constructed with medium pickets instead of long pickets in the fence center line
- Used when concealment of the barrier is essential
a. Evasion
- Know the enemy’s location!
- Look for signs of group movement, such as crushed grass, cigarette butts, footprints, broken branches, etc
- Look for workers in the field, indicates no immediate threat
- Absence of children in a village, indicative of pending action
- Absence of young men in a village, may mean the village is under enemy control
- Be patient, cautious, and avoid overconfidence
- Conserve strength by avoiding exhaustion
- Retain items of identification such as dog tags. If captured without them, you may be treated as a spy.
- Evasion Travel Tips
- Use firearms only in an emergency
- Avoid people as long as possible
- When you approach friendly lines, make sure you identify yourself as friendly.
b. Survival
- Size up the situation
- Undue haste makes waste
- Remember where you are
- Vanquish fear and panic
- Improvise
- Value living
- Act like the natives
- Learn the basic skills
• Challenge and Passwords
- Sentry’s duties
- As someone approaches, sentry calls, “Halt! Who goes there?”
- Reply with name and company: “CE1 Spark, B Co”
- Sentry: “advance and be recognized”
- Sentry keeps person distant enough to effectively cover him, but close enough to recognize him
- Person passes if recognized
- If not recognized, sentry offers countersigns
- Always disguise countersigns in a sentence and speak in a low voice. Example: snowflake and rooster
- Sentry “I haven’t seen a snowflake since I was at my red house last year”
- Reply: “I passed a cow and a rooster loosed back there”
- Person has been successfully challenged and would be allowed to pass.
• Training is the best defense
- Continually train on immediate action drills to ensure prompt response
- Enemy is expecting to create chaos with an ambush
- Taking immediate action will surprise the enemy and giving the unit a better chance at survival
- Intelligence reports can help predict an ambush
• Immediate action
- Near ambush: Return fire and assault through
- Withdrawal from a near ambush is unlikely, so it is critical to return firm immediately and drive through
- Enemy may not expect a quick and decisive response
- Far ambush: take cover and withdraw orderly
- Immediately drop and return fire
- Unit commander organizes withdrawal with constant cover fire
- Convoys caught in an ambush
- Passengers return fire immediately
- Driver does not stop in the kill zone but drives through
- Once clear of the killing zone, vehicle halts and occupants dismount to take offensive action
- Vehicles in the rear approaching kill zone halt, debark, and take immediate action
- If a vehicle is disabled in the kill zone
- Passengers in HARDENED vehicles return fire from inside the protective vehicle
- Passengers in SOFT vehicles immediately dismount, take cover, and return fire
- If no cover is available, unit commanders leads them in an immediate frontal assault
fundamentals of a successful ambush.
• Surprise attack from a concealed position upon a moving or temporarily halted target.
• Success of an ambush is contingent upon:
- Early warning of target approach
- Holding fire until target is in the kill zone
- Open fire at proper time
- Lifting or shifting supporting fires
- Initiation of the correct action if the ambush is compromised
- Timely and orderly withdrawal form ambush site
basic fire team formations
a. Column
b. Wedge
c. Skirmishers (right or left)
d. Echelon (right or left)
d. Echelon (right or left)
- Used primarily to protect an exposed flank
- Permits heavy firepower to the front and the direction of the echelon
- Hard formation to control and slow moving
b. Wedge
- Used when the enemy contact is possible, but not certain
- Provides all around protection, flexibility and is easy to control
a. Column
- Used when speed and control are governing factors
- Favorable for fire and maneuver to either flank
- Vulnerable to fire from the front because it’s own fire in that direction is limited.
360 DEGREES OR 6400 MILS1 click of bezel of 3 deg
horizontal angle measured in a clockwise manner froma N baseline.
-below 180 deg-add/Above 180deh-subtract
Grid North- north given when looking at a map
True North-Actual North
Magnetic North-Given with the compass
Three ways to orient a map
-compass rose
-declination diagram
-North and South gridlines
Two hold methods for the lensatic compass
center hold
compass to check