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### 24 Cards in this Set

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 1st Law of Thermodynamics The total energy of the universe is constant, that is, it cannot be created or destroyed. (You can't win.) 2nd Law of Thermodynamics Processes tend to run toward entropy. (You can't break even). Equation for internal energy of a system dE= q+w, where dE is proportional to Temp Isochloric system A system where thre is no change in volume. dE=q because w=-PdV=0 Work of a system w=-pdV when a piston moves up, there is a gain in PE, system is doing work on the surroundings Isobaric SYstem dP=0 Isothermal System dT=0 Adiabatic System no heat is transferred between the system and its surroundings all energy is transferred as work Entropy the measurement of things moving toward disorder Enthalpy the energy that must be put into a bond in order to break it when a bond is formed, energy is released Heat of a rxn change in enthalpy (dH) -dH= exothermic +dH= endothermic Heat of a rxn for diatomic and monatomic elements in their natural state dH=0 Standard state 298K (25C), 1 atm pressure, 1M Hess's Law The sum of energies absorbed or released in all steps will be the same as that of the overall reaction. Rules for Applying Hess's Law 1. If a rxn is reversed, the sign of dH is reversed 2. If an equation is multiplied by a constant, dH is also multiplied by the same constant Gibbs Free Energy dG= dH-TdS -dG= spontaneous rxn +dG= nonspontaneous rxn dg=0= equilibrium Spon or Nonspon? -dH +dS spon (-dG) Spon or Nonspon? +dH +dS spon at high temps (-dG) nonspon at low temps (+dG) Spon or Nonspon? -dH -dG nonspon at high temps (+dG) spon at low temps (-dG) Spon or Nonspon? +dH -dS Nonspon (+dG) t/f Catalysts are able to change dS, dH, and dG F Thermodynamics and Equilibrium dG (standard state)= -2.3 RTlog Keq, where Keq=10^(-dG/5700)@STP -dG (standard state)= spon, Keq> 1 +dG (standard state) = nonspon, Keq<1 0=dG (standard state)= equil, Keq=1 Mass defect the difference in the masses of individual nucleons and their mass when combined what is the equation to find the energy that is made when nucleons come together E-mc^2 c= speed of light m = mass defect