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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the substance doing the dissolving
solvent
the substance being dissolved
solute
relatively little solute in a given amount of solvent
dilute
relatively large amount of solute in a given amount of solvent
concentrated
a solute in which the solvent has absorbed as much solute as possible
saturated solution
all solutions have four things in common:
1. homogeneity
2. absence of settling
3. molecular or ionic state of subdivision of solute
4. composition can be varied wtihin limits
solubility of a gas in a liquid depends on
1. the nature of the gas
2. the pressure on the gas
3. temperature
mutually soluble liquids are said to be...
miscible
mutually insoluble liquids are said to be...
immiscible
the separation of two liquids on the basis of their boiling point
fractional distillation
solution which distills without a change in the composition or temperature
azeotrope
the vapor pressure of a mixture can be:
1) between the vapor pressures of either pure component
2) higher than the vapor pressure of either pure component
3) lower than the vapor pressure of either pure component
the attraction of the + or – end of a polar molecule for an oppositely charged ion.
ion-dipole interaction
the association of solvent molecules with solute particles
solvation
solution with dissolved ions. Can conduct electricity
Electrolytes
solution which contains no dissolved ions. Cannot conduct electricity
Nonelectrolytes
Compounds dissolve spontaneously (w/out catalyst or heat) if:
1) there is a decrease in the internal energy of the system
2) there is an increase in the entropy of the system
one of these two qualities can override the other.
The removal of the particles from the crystal lattice is
endothermic
The solvation of the dissolved particles is
exothermic
a solution in which the solvent has dissolved as much solute as possible.
Saturated solution
a solution in which there is an equilibrium between dissolved and undissolved solute
saturated solution
Factors effecting the rate of solution:
1) solubility – the more soluble, the faster it dissolves
2) degree of subdivision – increase in degree of subdivision increases rate of dissolution
3) stirring
4) heating
solution whose concentration is known
standard solution
grams of solute over grams of solution times 100
mass percent or weight percent
moles of solute over moles of solution
mole fraction
mole fraction times one hundred
mole percent
moles of solute per liter of solution
molarity
given in terms of the number of equivalents of solute per liter of solution
normality
moles of solute per kg of solvent
molality
the amount of that acid that provides 1 mol of H+ or protons in an acid-base reaction
equivalent of an acid
the amount of that base that provides 1 mol of hydroxide ions or reacts with 1 mol of H+ in acid-base reactions
equivalent of a base
Mconc x Lconc = Mdilute x Ldilute this equation works with all concentration terms (m, M, etc.) and terms of volume.
dilution of solutions
uses a set of burets
Titration
reaction of equivalent amounts of an acid and a base.
Neutralization
an organic dye that shows different colors in different media
Indicator
that point at which neutralization occurs (meq acid = meq base)
Endpoint
The addition of non-volatile solute to a solvent ________ the vapor pressure of the solvent
lowers
the addition of a non-volatile solution a solvent ________ the boiling point of the solvent
raises
the addition of a non-volatile solution a solvent ________ the freezing point of the solvent
lowers
the vapor pressure of any component of an ideal solution is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure component multiplied by the mole fraction in the solution. Change in pressure = mole fraction of solute times the pressure of pure solvent.
Raoult’s law
those that are determined by the number of particles in a solute and in a solution and not the size, type, or mass of the particle.
Colligative property
the boiling point elevation due to the addition of 1 mol of a non-volatile non-electrolyte to 1 kg solvent.
Molal boiling point elevation constant (Kb)
the freezing point depression due to the addition of 1 mol of a non-volatile non-electrolyte to 1 kg solvent.
Molal freezing point depression constant (Kf)
the diffusion of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Osmosis
pressure required to stop osmosis of solvent molecules through the semipermeable membrane. Π=MRT
Osmotic pressure (π)
a pair of oppositely charged ions that remain associated with one another in solution
Ion pair