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49 Cards in this Set

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Atomic Theory
an explanation of the structure of matter in terms of different combinations of very small particles
Atom
an extremely small particle of matter that retains its identity during chemical reactions
Element
a type of matter composed of only one kind of atom
Compound
a type of matter composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions
Atomic Symbol
a one- or two-letter notation used to represent an atom corresponding to a particular element

Ex.
O - Oxygen
He - Helium
Law of Multiple Proportions
elements in a compound are in fixed ratios of small whole numbers
Structure of An Atom:
Nucleus
the atom's core
-positively charged
-contains most of the atom's mass
Structure of An Atom:
Neutron
-located in the nucleus
-no charge
-mass equal to about proton
Structure of An Atom:
Proton
-located in the nucleus
-positive charge
-mass equal to about neutron
Electron
-located outside the nucleus
-negative charge
-mass much smaller than neutron or proton
Mass Number
the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

Ex. ²³NA
Atomic Number
the number of protons in an atom

Ex. ₁₁NA

Also, the Atomic Number identifies the element on the periodic table.
Isotopes
atoms who nuclei have the same atomic number (protons) but different mass numbers (neutrons)

Ex. Oxygen
99.759% oxygen-16
0.037% oxygen-17
0.204% oxygen-18
Atomic Weight
the average atomic mass for the naturally occurring element, expressed in atomic mass units (amu)
Atomic Weight:
Isotopic Masses and Fractional Abundance
Ex. Chromium, Cr

Mass--|Isotopic|Fractional
Number|--Mass--|Abundance-
--50--|49.9461-|0.0435----
--52--|51.9405-|0.8379----
--53--|52.9407-|0.0950----
--54--|53.9389-|0.0236----


49.9461amu x0.0435 = 2.17amu
51.9405amu x0.8379= 43.52amu
52.9407amu x0.0950 = 5.03amu
53.9389amu x0.0236 = 1.27amu
------------------ + _______
------------------- 51.99amu
Periodic Table
a tabular arrangement of elements in rows and columns, highlighting the regular repetition of properties of the elements
Periodic Table:
Period
the elements in any one horizontal row of the periodic table
Periodic Table:
Group
the elements in any one column of the periodic table
Main Group Elements

aka

Representative Elements
the A Groups of the Periodic Table
Transition Elements

aka

Transition Metals
the B Groups of the Periodic Table
Inner-Transition Elements

aka

Inner-Transition Metals
the two rows at the very bottom of the Periodic Table
Lanthanides
first row of the Inner-Transition Metals
Actinides
the second row of the Inner-Transition Metals
Alkali Metals
Group IA

soft metals that react easily with water.

Li - Lithium
Na - Sodium
K - Potassium
Rb - Rubidium
Cs - Cesium
Fr - Francium
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group IIA

reactive metals, but less reactive than alkali metals

Be - Beryllium
Mg - Magnesium
Ca - Calcium
Sr - Strontium
Ba - Barium
Ra - Radium
Halogens
Group VIIA

reactive non-metals

F - Fluorine
Cl - Chlorine
Br - Bromine
I - Iodine
At - Astatine
Noble Gases
Group VIIIA

unreactive monatomic elements.

He - Helium
Ne - Neon
Ar - Argon
Kr - Krypton
Xe - Xenon
Rn - Radon
Metal
a substance or mixture that has a characteristic luster, or shine, and is generally a good conductor or electricity and heat.

are solids at room temperature, except for mercury.
Nonmetals
does not exhibit the characteristics of of metal.

are usually gases (chlorine and oxygen) or solids (phosphorus or sulfur). Bromine is the only liquid non-metal.

Solid nonmetals are usually hard, brittle substances.
Metalloids

or

Semi-Metals
have both metallic and non-metallic characteristics.

are good semi-conductors; conduct electricity and heat at high temperatures.

B - Boron
Si - Silicon
Ge - Germanium
As - Arsenic
Sb - Antimony
Te - Tellurium
At - Astatine
Chemical Formula
a notation that uses atomic symbols with numerical subscripts to convey the relative proportions of atoms of different elements in a substance.

Ex. Al₂O₃
Molecule
a definite group of atoms that are chemically bonded together.
Molecular Formula
gives the exact number of different atoms of an element in a molecule.
Polymers
very large molecules that are made up of a number of smaller molecules repeatedly linked together.
Monomers
the small molecules that are linked together to form a polymer.
Ion
an electrically charged particle obtained from an atom or chemically bonded group of atoms by adding or removing electrons.
Anion
an atom that picks up an electron and becomes negatively charged.
Cation
an atom that loses an electron and becomes positively charged.
Ionic Compound
a compound composed of cations and anions.
Organic Compounds
molecular substances that contain carbon combined with other elements, such as hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
Hydrocarbons
compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon.
Inorganic Compounds
composed of elements other than carbon.

Exceptions: carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (C0₂), carbonates, and cyanides.
Chemical Nomenclature
the systematic naming of chemical compounds.
Monatomic Ion
an ion formed from a single atom.

Al³⁺
Polyatomic Ion
an ion consisting of two or more atoms chemically bonded together and carrying a net electric charge.

Metal + Nonmetal
SO₄²⁻
Binary Molecular Compound
a compound composed of only two elements.

Metal + Nonmetal
treated as Ionic

Nonmetal + nonmetal
Metalloid + Metalloid
Cl0₂ chlorine dioxide
Acid
a molecular compound that yields hydrogen ions, H⁺, and an anion for each acid molecule when dissolved in water.
Oxoacid
an acid containing hydrogen, oxygen and another element.

HNO₃
nitric acid
Hydrate
a compound that contains water molecules weakly bound in its crystals.

CuSO₄ · 5H₂O
copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate