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20 Cards in this Set

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Solute
Substance present in smaller proportion in solution
Solvent
Substance present in greater proportion in solution
Saturated Soltion
solution in which no more solute will dissolve
Molarity
# moles of solute/ # liters of solution
Molality
# moles of solute/# kg of solvent, doesnt change with temperature
Electrolytes
Free ions in solution
Weak electrolytes
Covalent compounds
Strong electrolytes
Ionic compounds
Salt soolubility rules
All Group I (LI+, Na+, K+) and ammonium are soluble (NH4+)
All nitrates (NO3-), acetates(C2H3O2-) and perchlorates(ClO4-) are soluble
All silver (Ag+), lead (Pb2+), and mercury (Hg2+) are insoluble except acetates, nitrates and perchlorates
Solubility of solids in liquids
Increases with increasing temperature
Solubility of gases in liquids
Increases with increasing pressure, decreases with increasing temperature
Colligative properties
Depend on number of solute particles in the solution rather then type of particles - vapor pressure depression, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, osmotic pressure
Vapor pressure
pressure exerted by gaseous phase of a liquid that evaporated from exposed surface of liquid
Volatile liquids
Easily evaporated , HIGH vapor pressure
Raoults Law
Pa= Xa PpureA
Boiling point Elevation
Boiling point elevation=
K(b)* i * m
i - van't Hoff factor
m- molal concentration
freezing point depression
-k(f) * i * m
i, van't Hoff factor
# of ions
NaCl = 2, BaF2 = 3
Osmotic Pressure
Pressure it takes to stop osmosis from occuring
P = iMRT
M- molarity, R gas constant, T - temp in K
Osmosis
net movement of water across semipermeable membrane from region of higher water concentration to region of lower water concentration