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36 Cards in this Set

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Photosynthesis
The conversion of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar/glucose.
Autotroph (auto means "self," and trophos means "feed")
(H)
An organism that sustains itself without eating anything derived from other organisms. Biologists refer to these organisms as the producers of the biosphere.
(H)
"Self-feeders"
Heterotrophs (hetero means "other," and trophos means "feed"
(H)
Organisms that sustain themselves by compounds produced by other organisms.
(H)
"Consumers"
Chlorophyll
The pigment located in the chloroplasts of a leaf.
Mesophyll
The tissue in the interior of the leaf.
Stomata
Microscopic pores on a leaf where Carbon dioxide enters and Oxygen exits.
Stroma
The dense fluid within the chloroplasts.
Thylakoids
An elaborate system of interconnected membranous sacs that segregates the stroma from the thylakoid space.
Light Reactions
(H)
The step of photosynthesis that converts solar energy to chemical energy.
(H)
(The photo part of photosynthesis)
Calvin Cycle
(H)
The step of photosynthesis that takes CO2 from the air and then reduces it into carbohydrates, which is sugar.
(The synthesis part of photosynthesis)
NADP+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate)
A combination of electrons and Hydrogen, from water, that temporarily stores the energized electrons.
Photophosphorylation
When light reactions of photosynthesis generate ATP, using chemiosmosis to power the addition of a phosphate group to ADP.
Carbon Fixation
The initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds, during the Calvin Cycle.
Wavelength
The distance between the crests of electromagnetic waves.
Photons
Tiny particles that make up light energy.
Spectrometer
The instrument that measures the ability of a pigment to absorb various wavelengths of light.
Absorbtion Spectrum
A graph plaotting a pigment's light absorbtion versus the wavelength.
Chlorophyll (a)
Suggests that violet-blue and red light work best for photosynthesis, since they are absorbed, while blue-green is the least effective color.
Chlorophyll (b)
Suggests that violet-blue and red light work best for photosynthesis, since they are absorbed, while yellow-green is the least effective color.
Carotenoids
Hydrocarbons that are various shades of yellow and orange because they absorb violet and blue-green light.
Photosystem
A system composed of a reaction center surrounded by a number of light-harvesting complexes.
Light-harvesting Complex
A complex that consists of pigment molecules (which may include chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids) bound to particular protiens.
Reaction Center
A protiens complex that includes two special chlorophyll a molecules and a molecule called the "primary electron acceptor."
Photosystem II
The first of the two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it has two molecules of P680 chlorophyll (a) at it's reaction center.
Photosystem I
The second of the two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it has two molecules of P700 chlorophyll (a) at it's reaction center.
Noncyclic electron flow
A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems (I & II) and produces ATP, NADPH, and oxygen. The net electron flow from water to NADP+
Cyclic electron flow
A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and that produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen.
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) (H)
The carbohydrate produced directly from the Calvin cycle.
(G3P)
Rubisco (Ribulose Carboxylase)
The enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose biphosphate)
C3 Plants
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
Photorespiration
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases the photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
C4 Plants
A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into a four-carbon compound, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle.
Bundle-sheath Cells
A type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf.
Mesophyll Cells
A loosely arranged photosynthetic cells located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface.
PEP Carboxylase
An enzyme that adds carbon dioxide to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form oxaloacetate.
CAM Plants (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism)
A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed.