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47 Cards in this Set

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gives rigid support, protects against osmotic pressure
peptidoglycan
major surface antigen - has teichoic acid - induces acute phase reactants TNF and IL1
cell wall/cell membrane
site of endotoxin (LPS), major surface antigen
outer membrane (GN)
LPS components
lipid A (induces TNF and IL1), core polysaccharide, outer O side chain
site of oxidative and transport enzymes
plasma membrane
space between cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane in GN bacteria
periplasm
protects against phagocytosis
capsule
mediates adherence of bacteria to cell surface, sex pilus forms attachment between 2 bacteria during conjugation
pilus/fimbria
motility
flagellum
provides resistance to dehydration, heat and chemicals
spore
contains a variety of genes for antibiotic resistance, enzymes and toxins
plasmid
organisms with IgA proteases
S pneumo, N mening, N gonorrhea, H influ
bugs that do not gram stain well
treponema, rickettsia, mycobacteria, mycoplasma, legionella, chlamydia
exotoxin
secreted from cell, made of polypeptide, induces high titer antibodies- antitoxins
endotoxin
part of the cell, made of LPS, poorly antigenic
superantigens
bind directly to MHC II and TCR, activating large numbers of T cell to stimulate release of IFN-gamma and IL2
S aureus toxins
TSST-1- TSS
enterotoxin (preformed)- food poisoning
a-toxin- hemolysis
b-toxin- sphingomyelinase
leukocidin and hemolysin
epidermolytic/exfoliative- epithelial cell lysis, SSSS
S pyogenes toxins
streptolysin O- hemolysis
streptolysin S- hemoylsis
erythrogenic/pyrogenic toxins- skin rash and fever of scarlet fever
diphtheria toxin
inactivates EF2, causes pharyngitis and pseudomembrane colitis
vibrio toxin
stimualates adenylyl cyclase; increases pumping of Cl and water into gut- voluminous rice water diarrhea
e coli toxin
heat labile toxin stimulates adenylyl cyclase causing watery diarrhea
heat stabile toxin stimulates guanylyl cyclase
bordatella toxin
stimulates adenylyl cyclase, causes whopping cough; inhibits chemokine receptor, causing lymphocytosis
perfringens toxin
gas gangrene
tetanus toxin
blocks release of inhibitor transmitter glycine- causes lockjaw
botulinum toxin
blocks release of Ach, causes anticholinergic symptoms, CNS paralysis especially cranial nerves
anthracis toxin
edema factor, lethal factor, protective antigen
shiga toxin
like E coli O157:H7 cleaves host cell rRNA; enhances cytokine release causing HUS
bacteria that secrete enterotoxins
vibrio, e coli, staph, salmonella, shigella
what does C3a do
hypotension, edema
mast cell and basophil degranulation--> histamien
what does C5a do
neutrophil chemotaxis
H influ media
chocolate agar with factors V and X
M tb media
Lowenstein Jensen agar, 2-4 weeks, slow growing
Lactose fermenting enterics media
MacConkey's agar
Features of MacConkeys
bile salts and crystal violet- inhibit GP
lactose- only carbohydrate
neutral red stain (those that ferment lactose will pick it up)
congo red stains for
amyloid (green apply birefringence because of beta pleated sheets)
giema stains for
borrelia, plasmodium, trypanosomes, chlamydia
Ziehl-Neelson stains for
acid fact bacteria
india ink stains for
C neoformans
silver stains for
fungi, PCP, legionella
methods for exchanging DNA cell to cell
conjugation, transduction, transformation
method for plasmid transfer
conjugation by f-pillus
obligate aerobes
nocardia, pseudomonas, myco tb, bacillus
"nagging pests must breathe"
m tb likes...
apices of the lung which have the highest PO2
obligate anaerobes
clostridium, bacteriodes, actinomyces

cannot use aminoglycosides against them
lack catalase/superoxide dismutase
obligate IC bugs
rickettsia, chlamydia- cannot make their own ATP
encapsulated bacteria
strep pneumo, h influ, neisseria mening, kleb pneumo
spore formers
bacillus anthracis, clostridium perfringens, c tetani, coxiella