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28 Cards in this Set

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List two ways in which Anaerobic bacteria can infect humans
-By normal flora colonizing to form oxygen deficient sites (intestine)
-spore-formers from the environment
List three characteristics of Clostridium?
-Gram positive
-anaerobic
-endospore forming
What is a common name for Clostridum Perfringens?
Gas gangrene (most common)
What is the name and effect of the alpha toxin of C.Perfringens on the body?
Phospholipase: lyes blood cells and causes bleeding and tissue distruction
What is the name and effect of the theta toxin of C.Perfringens?
Pore forming: alters capillary permibility; toxic to heart
How does the Gas part of Gangrene form?
Spores get into tissue that is poorley perfused and fermentate(for more enery) to form gas
What is the common name for Clostridium Tetani and where is it found?
-Tetanus (Stepping on a rusty or old nail)
-found in the dirt
What effect does Tetanus have on the body?
it blocks the release of neurotransmitters for muscle relaxation - Lock Jaw
What is the major cause of death from Tetanus?
Respiration failure
How does the Gas part of Gangrene form?
Spores get into tissue that is poorley perfused and fermentate(for more enery) to form gas
What is the common name for Clostridium Tetani and where is it found?
-Tetanus (Stepping on a rusty or old nail)
-foun in the dirt
What is done to prevent Tetanus?
-Initial 3 dose vaccination
-10 yr boosters
What is DTaP?
-Tetanus in kids
What is passive immunity of Tetanus?
-Recieved while mothers wound
-Ab's neutralize bacteria
What steps are taken if one is expose to Tetanus?
-Always clean wound
-if >10yr get booster(active immunity) and passive immunity (Ab's in body)
-if 5-10yr get booster
What role does antibiotics play in the treatment of Tetanus?
Penicillin is used to kill bateria (prevent the production of the toxin)
What is Clostridium Botulinum?
This food poisoning
How do you kill Botulism?
-Once you open the can the bacteria is dead because it is an anaerobe.
-the toxins cannot be killed by oxygen or by boiling
What are the effects of Botulism on the body?
-it blocks the release of acetylocholine release(muscle can't contract)
-the cranial nerves,blurred vision and constipation.
What is the number one source of Botulism?
Home can foods
How do you kill the Botulism toxin?
By heating to 85 degrees celcius for 5 minutes.
What is the treatment of Botulism?
-Supportive care
-passive immunity(anti-toxin horse sera)
What is the most common form of botulism?
Infant Botulism; can't survive in humans but can in kids <1 yr. Don't give kids honey because bees pick up bacteria from flowers
What is Clostridium Difficile also known as?
Pseudomembranous colitis
(life threatening)
What is a precurser to Pseudomembranous colitis?
-prior antibiotics most commonly clindamycin,cephalosporins, and ampicillin
Where is Pseudomembranous colitis usually found?
-In the stool
-membranes in the lumen
What is the drug of choice for pseudomembranous colitis?
Vancomycin or Metronidazole
a)How many types of C.Perfringens are there?
b)which is the most important for human disease?
a)There are 5 types A-E

b)Type A