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598 Cards in this Set

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Adenocarcinoma
a malignant tumor of epithelial cells arranged in glandular pattterns
Adenoma
a benign epithelial tumor in which the cells form glandular structures or are derived from glandular epithelium
Amelanotic
refers to a melanoma that contains little or no pigment
Cachexia
a pathologic state characterized by weight loss and anorexia that accompanies some infections and neoplastic disease
Cancer
a group of neoplastic diseases in which there is transformation of normal cells into malignant cells
Carcinoma
a suffix that denotes a malignant tumor derived from epithelial cells
Hemangio-(prefix)
blood vessel. Hemagiosarcoma--malignant tumor of a blood vessel
Histiocytoma
a neoplasm composed of round histiocytic cells
Leio-(prefix)
smooth. Leiomyoma--a benign tumor of smooth muscle cells
Lip(o)-(prefix)
fat; lipid. Lipoma--a benign tumor of fat cells.
Lymphoma
a neoplastic disorder of lymphocytes
Malignant
having the properties of anaplasia, invasiveness and metastasis; tending to become progressively worse and to result in death.
Metastatic
a tumor that has transferred from one organ (or part) to another not directly connected to it.
My-,Myo-(prefix)
muscle. Leiomyosarcoma--a malignant tumor of smooth muscle cells.
Neoplasm
an abnormal mass of tissue with excessive, uncoordinated growth that persists even after the inciting stimulus is gone
Papilloma
the common wart; a benign tumor derived from epithelium
Polyp
a benign growth (hyperplastic or neoplastic) that protrudes from the surface of a mucous membrane
Polypoid
resembling a polyp
Sarcoma
suffix that denotes a malignant neoplasm that is derived from mesenchymal cells (bone, cartilage, connective tissue, fat)
Teratogen
any substance that can cause non-heritable birth defects in a developing embryo or fetus
Tumor
a swelling; a neoplasm
Verruca
a wart
Xantho-(prefix)
yellow. Xanthoma--a yellow tumor
-penia (suffix)
poverty. Thrombocytopenia--decrease in blood platelets
-rhage,-rrhage, -rrhagia
discharge. Hemorrhage--discharge of blood
Anasarca
severe, generalized edema
Anemia
a reduction below normal limits of the total circulating red blood cell mass
Aneurysm
a localized abnormal dilation in a blood vessel
Angiogenesis
the process of post-natal blood vessel formation; seen as part of healing and as part of neoplasia
Ascites
accumulation of edema fluid in the peritoneal cavity
Cardiac tamponade
syndrome of acute cardiac failure caused by filling of the pericardial sac with blood or fluid that prevents normal pumping of the heart
Congestion
accumulation of blood in the vessels of a tissue or at a site dure to impaired outflow
Contusion
a bruise; injury caused by blunt force that damages vessels and causes interstitial bleeding without disruption of tissue continuity
Cor Pulmonale
heart failure that occurs secondary to primary lung disease
Cyanosis
a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive concentration of reducted hemoglobin in the blood
DIC
Disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome; disease process in which wide-spread thrombosis occurs throughout the body; "Death is Coming"
Ecchymosis
blotchy, irregular areas of hemorrhage up to 2-3 cm in size
Edema
increased fluid in interstitial tissue spaces; extravasation of water across the vascular wall into the interstitial spaces
Embolism
the sudden blocking of an artery by a clot of material (embolus). The process of formation of an embolus.
Embolus
a detached intravascular solid, liquid or gaseous mass that is carried by the blood to a site distant from its origin
emia (suffix)
blood. Lipidemia--excess lipid in the blood.
Epicardium
the inner layer of serous pericardium which is in contact with the heart
Epistaxis
bleeding from the nose
Erythropoiesis
increased formation of red blood cells
Hema-,hemato-,hemo-
blood. Hematocrit--the volume percentage of RBCs in whole blood
Hemarthrosis
blood within joint spaces
Hematoma
extravascular blood clot that forms a mass within a tissue
Hematopoiesis
formation of blood cells
Hemopericardium
a spectrum of clinical disorders that are characterized by increased tendency for hemorrhage from usually insignificant injury
Hemoperitoneum
accumulation of blood in the peritoneal cavity
Hemoptysis
coughing up blood from the trachea and bronchi
Hemorrhage
extravasation of blood due to vessel rupture
Hemostasis
process of normal clotting of the blood
Hemothorax
accumulation of blood in the thoracic cavity
Hydro-, hygro-(prefix)
water; fluid. Hydronephrosis--distention of the renal pelvis and calices with urine
Hydrothorax
accumulation of edema fluid in the pleural cavity
Hydroureter
distention of the ureter with fluid due to obstruction
Hyperemia
presence of an increased amount of blood in a part of an organ due to augmented tissue inflow and arteriolar dilation
Hypoxia
any state of reduced oxygen availability
Infarct
death of tissue caused by interruption of its blood supply; ischemic necrosis
Ischemia
state of reduced blood flow
Leuc-, Leuk-(prefix)
white. Leukocyte--white blood cell. Leukopenia--reduction in number of leukocytes in the blood.
Nutmeg liver
gross lesion of chronic passive congestion of the liver; red & tan finely mottled pattern is visible
Pericardial effusion
accumulation of edema fluid in the pericardial sac; hydropericardium
Petechia
minute 1 to 2 mm pinpoint hemorrhages
Phleb-(prefix)
vein. Phlebitis-inflammation of the vein
Purpura
larger hemorrhages (>3mm) scattered on many body surfaces
Shock
syndrome of cardiovascular collapse; final common pathway of many potentially lethal clinical events (hemorrhage, burns, massive trauma)
Syncope
a temporary loss of consciousness due to insufficient cerebral blood flow (fainting)
Thromboembolus
a clot of material that breaks free from a primary site, is transported in the bloodstream and becomes lodged at a secondary site
Thrombosis
inappropriate activation of normal hemostatic processes; intravascular coagulation that produces a thrombus; pathological clotting
Transudate
fluid with a low protein content and a specific gravity < 1.012; an ultrafiltrate of plasma
-uria (suffix)
urine. Proteinuria--protein in the urine
"schisis"
falure to close; palatoschisis
A-, An (prefix)
without. Aplasia--without or lack of formation
Achalasia
failure of a sphincter to relax
Agenesis
absence, failure of formation and primordium is absent
Aplasia
defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue
Arythrogryposis
a congenital angular deformity of joints that is caused by abnormal development of tendons and subsequent contracture
Atresia (adj. atretic)
closed; absence of a normal opening or normally patent lumen
Brachygnathia
protrusion of the upper jaw due to shortening of the lower jaw
cheiloschisis
cleft lip; failure of fusion of the upper lip or philtrum
Congenital
existing at birth; may be due to hereditary factors or some influence occuring during gestation
Dysgenesis
defective embryonic development
Dysplasia
abnormal tissue development; failure of a tissue to form properly; abnormal organization of cells
Dystopia
displacement
Ectopia
tissue forms at the wrong site
Exencephaly
defect in which the brain is abnormally formed and it protrudes through the skull
Freckle
small tan-red or light brown macules that occur on lightly pigmented skin; ephelis
Goiter
an enlarged, hyperplastic thyroid gland
Hamartoma
tumor-like malformation in a tissue
Hereditary
transmitted from parent to offspring
Malocclusion
a failure of the upper and lower incisors to interdigitate properly
Malposition
faulty or abnormal position of a part of the body
Palatoschisis
cleft palate; lateral palatine processes fail to fuse
Polydactyly
having more digits than normal
Prognathia
an abnormal protrusion of the lower jaw
Sclero-(prefix)
hard. Scleroderma--a hardened patch of skin or mucous membrane
Syndactyly
fusion of digits
Urolith
a stone the forms in the urinary tract
-lysis (suffix)
to dissolve. Autolysis--self-dissolution.
-malacia (suffix)
softening. Osteomalacia--softening of bone.
-megaly (suffix)
great, large. Splenomegaly--enlargement of the spleen.
-oid (suffix)
like; resembling. Leukemoid--like leukemia.
-ologous (suffix)
relating to. Homologous--of similar structure.
-oma (suffix)
tumor. Osteoma--tumor of bone.
-opathy (suffix)
disease. Nephropathy--any disease of the kidney.
-orrhea (suffix)
flow; discharge. Leukorrhea--white discharge.
-oscopy (suffix)
view. Endoscopy--to view the inside; specifically, the intestine.
-osis (suffix)
a prccess, especially a morbid one. Diverticulosis--involvement with diverticula.
-ostomy (suffix)
mouth. Gastrostomy--creation of an artificial gastric fistula.
-otomy (suffix)
cut. Cholecystotomy-incision into the gall bladder.
-phage (suffix)
eat; devour. Macrophage-a cell that devours
-plasia (suffix)
to form. Hyperplasia--an increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ
-pnea (suffix)
breath. Dysnea--labored or difficult breathing
-ptosis (suffix)
falling. Ptosis--drooping of the eyelid
-rrhea (suffix)
abnormal or excessive flow. Steatorrhea--excessive lipid in the feces
-stasis (suffix)
standing still. Hemostasis--arrest of blood circulation
-trophy (suffix)
nourish. Dystrophy--defective or faulty nutrition
Adeno- (prefix)
gland. Adenitis-inflammation of a gland
Anis-, aniso (prefix)
unequal, dissimilar. Anisokaryosis--inequality in size of nuclei of cells
Ante- (prefix)
before in time or space. Antemortem--before death
Anti- (prefix)
against; counteracting. Antitoxin--an antibody to a toxin
Arthr(o)- (prefix)
joint; articulation. Arthrolith--a calculus deposit within a joint
Atrophy
a decrease in size of cells or decrease in size of a tissue or organ that was once normal in size; adaptation to a decreased work load or decreased nutritional stimulation
Auto- (prefix)
self. Autolysis--self-dissolution, the postmortem enzymatic degredation of cells
Autophagy
process by which a cell sequesters and digests its own cytoplasm and organelles; lysosomal digestion of the cell's own components
Bilateral
affecting both sides
Biopsy
the removal of a tissue sample from a living animal for diagnostic purposes
Botryoid
shaped like a bunch of grapes
Caseation necrosis
a vairant of coagulation necrosis in which dead tissue has a firm, dry, cheesy texture (dead tissue looks like cottage cheese)
Caseous
having a consistency like that of cottage cheese
Catarrh
inflammation of a mucous membrane with free discharge
cele (suffix)
tumor or herniation. Meningocoele-hernial protrusion of meninges
centesis (suffix)
puncture. Thoracocentesis--puncture of the pleural cavity
Chemotaxis
locomotion of leukocytes that is oriented along a chemical gradient
Chol-(prefix)
bile. Cholelith--gallstone, bile stone
Cirrhosis
progressive loss of hepatic lobular structure with fibrous connective tissue. The liver is subdivided into nodules of proliferating hepatocytes surrounded by scar tissue.
Contralateral
affecting or pertaining to the opposite side
Corrugated
having a ripple-like distortion
Cyst
an abnormal sac filled with gas, fluid, or semi-solid material that is lined by a membrane
Cyst(o)- (prefix)
bladder. Cystitis--inflammation of the bladder
Cyt(o)- (prefix)
cell. Cytomegaly--marked enlargement of cells
Death
the irreversible cessation of activity in the heart, lungs or brain
Dia-(prefix)
through; between. Diarrhea--fecal matter flowing through the bowel
Diffuse
not definitely localized or limited; spread widely through a tissue or substance
Disseminated
describes lesion distribution when an entire organ or structure contains many randomly distributed lesions throughout it
Dys-(prefix)
difficult, bad, abnormal. Dysplasia--abnormal formation. Dyspnea--difficult breathing ; dysphagia--difficult swallowing
ectomy (suffix)
excision. Cholecystectomy--excision of the gallbladder.
Em-, en-, in (prefix)
into. Encyst--to enclose in a cyst or sac
emesis (suffix)
vomit. Hematemesis--vomiting blood.
encephalo-(prefix)
brain
Encephalomalacia
softening of the brain; implies necrosis
Endo-(prefix)
within. Endocardium--the inner lining of the heart. Endometrium--the mucous membrane lining the uterus.
Enter(o)-(prefix)
intestine. Enteritis--inflammation of the intestine
Epi-(prefix)
upon. Eipbulbar--situated on the eyeball
Erosion
a partial loss of epithelial cells that does not extend through the basement membrane
Etiology
the study of the cause of disease
Euchromatin
dispersed, lightly-stained chromatin seen in the nucleus of a cell
Ex(o)-(prefix)
out of; away from; outside of. Exophytic--projecting out from a surface
Fistula
an abnormal opening or connection from one tissue or organ to another
Flocculent
having downy or flaky shreds
Focal
a lesion that occurs as a single, clearly defined focus
Friable
breaks apart or crumbles easily
Gangrene
a severe form of coagulation necrosis; dry and moist types
genesis (suffix)
origin. Spermatogenesis--formation of sperm
Grey matter
the grey nervous tissue of the brain and spinal cord consisting of the cell bodies and dendrites of nerve cells rather than the myelinated axons
Grumose
lumpy or clotted
Hemosiderin
golden yellow to brown pigment derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells
Hernia
a weakness or defect in the wall of a body cavity the permits protrusion of a serosa-lined sac, usually the abdominal cavity, umbilical and inguinal
Hetero-(prefix)
dissimilar. Heterocellular--composed of more than one type of cell
Heterochromatin
condensed, basophilic chromatin seen in the nucleus of the cell
Heterophagy
phagocytosis; process of lysosomal digestion of materials ingested from the extracellular environment
Homeo-, homo-(prefix)
similar; same. Homeotypical--resembling the normal or usual type
Hyper-(prefix)
above and beyond; excessive. Hyperacidity--excessive acidity
Hyperplasia
an increase in size due to cellular division & increased number of cells in a tissue
Hypertrophy
an increase in the size of a cell, or increased size of a tissue or organ caused by cellular enlargement
Hypoplasia
underdevelopment of a tissue or organ due to a decrease in the number of cells
iasis (suffix)
a process, especially a morbid one. Amebiasis--the state of being infected with amebae.
Idiopathic
occurring without known cause
Imperforate
atretic; closed.
Incision
an opening in the skin or an organ made by a sharp cutting object, such as a knife
Indurated
abnormally hard
Infra-(prefix)
beneath. Infraorbital--beneath the eye.
Inter-(prefix)
between. Intercellular--between two cells.
Intra-(prefix)
within. Intracellular--within cells.
Ipsilateral
affecting or pertaining to the same side
Jaundice
generalized yellow discoloration of tissue produced by accumulation of bilirubin in the blood; icterus.
Laceration
an irregular tear in the skin produced by over-stretching
Lesion
an abnormal structural and/or functional change in the body; a pathological change.
Lith-(prefix)
stone. Lithotomy--removal of a stone.
Macro-(prefix)
large. Macrophage--a large, mononuclear, phagocytic blood cell.
Malacia
liquifactive necrosis in the central nervous system
Mega-(prefix)
great. Megakaryocyte--a giant cell of the bone marrow that has a lobulated nucleus & gives rise to platelets.
Melan-(prefix)
black. Melanin--black pigment of the hair, skin, choroid, retina and certain nerve cells.
Mesothelium
the layer of simple squamous epithelium that covers the serous membranes of the body
Metaplasia
a reversible change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another adult cell type; represents an adaptive response of a tissue to stress
Micro-(prefix)
small. Microhepatia--a small liver.
Morphologic diagnosis
the interpretation of the abnormalities in terms of severity, time, lesion and anatomic site.
Mucous (adj.)
relating to or resembling mucous.
Mucus (n.)
the glandular, free slime of the mucous membranes.
Multifocal
a lesion that occurs as several focal areas
Myelo-(prefix)
spinal cord
Myelomalacia
softening of the spinal cord; implies necrosis
Myx-(prefix)
mucus. Myxedema--mucinous edema
Necr-(prefix)
death. Necrosis--the morphologic changes indicative of cell death, indicated by characteristic nuclear and cytoplasmic changes.
Necropsy
examination of an animal body after death
Necrosis
death of cells and tissues in the living animal
Nephr-(prefix)
kidney. Nephrectomy--surgical removal of the kidney.
Nodule
an elevated, spherical lesion that is usually greater than 5 mm across
Oligo-(prefix)
few; scanty.
Papillary
having small, nipple-shaped projections
Papillary necrosis
focal areas of necrosis in the renal medulla, often at the cortico-medullary junction
Para-(prefix)
beside. Parauterine--beside the uterus.
Parenchyma
the essential or functional elements of an organ.
Patent
open, exposed or unobstructed.
Pathogenesis
the sequence of events that leads to a disease or morbid process.
Pathognomonic
specially or decisively characteristic of a disease; sign that indicates with certainty that a specific disease/agent is present
Pathology
the science and study of disease, especially the causes and development of abnormal conditions both gross and microscopic.
Pedunculated
elevated, as on a stem (pedicle)
Peri-(prefix)
around. Peribronchial--around the bronchus
Phago- (prefix)
eat; devour. Phagocyte--any cell that ingests foreign material, other cells or microorganisms
Pinna
the projecting part of the ear
Prognosis
a prediction of the outcome of a pathological process or disease
Regeneration
growth of cells and tissues to replace lost structures
Reniform
shaped like a kidney
Resilient
having the ability to return to an original shape after having been compressed or deformed
Saponification
the hydrolysis of a fat by alkali with the formation of a soap and glycerol
Serosa
any serous membrane
Serpiginous
having a wavy border
Serrated
having a saw-like edge
Sessile
attached by a broad base
Stea- (prefix)
lipid. Steatorrhea--excessive lipid in the feces
Stenosis
a stricture of any canal
Stoma-(prefix)
mouth.
Umbilicated
marked by depressed spots resembling the umbilicus
Unilateral
affecting only one side
Verrucous
rough; wart-like
Viscous
thick; coagulated; sticky or gummy
Abrasion
a scrape of the skin; injury in which superficial epidermis is torn off by friction or force
Anaphylaxis
shock syndrome caused by a generalized IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response that results in widespread vasodilation & increased vascular permeability
Histiocyte
a large, phagocytic cell of the reticuloendothelial system, a macrophage
Opsonization
the process of coating a particle to target it for phagocytosis
Wheal
itchy, transparent, elevated lesion with variable blanching and erythema formed as the result of dermal edema
-itis (suffix)
inflammation. Appendicitis--inflammation of the appendix.
Abscess
a localized collection of pus caused by infection in a tissue, organ or confined space
Amyloid
a pathologic proteinaceous substance deposited between cells in tissues
Amyloidosis
disease process resulting from the deposition of amyloid in tissues. It results from abnormal folding of proteins which are deposited as fibrils in extracellular tissues and disrupts normal functions.
Angio (suffix)
vessel. Lymphangitis--inflammation of a lymph vessel
Arteritis
inflammation of an artery
Blister
a fluid-filled raised lesion; also called a vessicle or a bulla
Cellulitis
a diffuse inflammatory process within solid tissues characterized by edema, redness, pain and interference with function. Cellulitis often occurs in the loose tissues beneath the skin.
Derma-, dermat(o)-
skin. Dermatitis--inflammation of the skin
Diptheritic membrane
a thin coating on the surface of an epithelial lined organ that is composed on necrotic cellular debris, inflammatory cells and fibrin
ectasis (suffix)
to stretch; dilate. Bronchiectasis--dilatation of bronchi. The noun form is ectasia.
Empyema
pus in a body cavity
Exudate
an inflammatory extravascular fluid that has a high protein concentration, cellular debris and a specific gravity > 1.020
Fibrin
a filamentous protein formed from the precursor fibrinogen by the enzyme thrombin
Fibrinoid
having an appearance similar to fibrin
Fibrosis
abnormal deposition of connective tissue; usually occurs in response to defective attempts to repair an injured area of tissue
Gastroenteritis
inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestine
Granuloma
a focus of chronic inflammation consisting of aggregations of macrophages bordered by mononuclear leukocytes surrounded by a rim of fibroblasts or connective tissue
Granulomatous
composed of granulomas
Hypotonia
abnormally decreased tonicity, tension or strength
Inflammation
vascular and interstitial tissue changes that develop in response to tissue injury in an attempt to sequester, dilute & destroy the inciting agent
Intussusception
the telescoping of one segment of bowel into an outer sheath formed by another adjacent segment of bowel;
Leukoencephalitis
inflammation of the white matter of the brain
Lymphadenitis
inflammation of a lymph node
Lymphangectasia
dilation of the lymphatic vessels
Macule
a circumscribed lesion up to 5mm diameter characterized by flatness & distinguished from surrounding tissue by its color
Meninges
the three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord--dura mater, arachnoid and pia mater.
Meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
Meningo-(prefix)
membrane; meninges. Meningoencephalitis--inflammation of the brain and meninges.
Myelin
the lipid substance forming a sheath around the axons of certain nerve fibers.
Osteo-(prefix)
bone. Osteomyelitis--inflammation of bone.
Osteoid
resembling bone.
Panniculitis
an inflammatory condition involving subcutaneous fat
Papule
a small, circumscribed, solid, elevated lesion of the skin
Plaque
an elevated, flat-topped lesion, usually greater than 5 mm across, may be caused by coalescent papules
Pleuropneumonia
inflammation of the lungs and pleura
Pneumonia
inflammation of the lung
Pus
an inflammatory exudate rich in leukocytes and dead cell debris
Pustule
a discreet, raised, pus-filled lesion
Pyelonephritis
inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis often caused by an ascending bacterial infection
Pyo-(prefix)
pus. Pyometra--an accumulation of pus within the uterus
Pyothorax
accumulation of pus or purulent exudate in the thoracic cavity
Rodent ulcer
oral eosinophilic granuloma
Scale
dry, horny, platelike shedding of skin; flaky
Stomatitis
inflammation of the mucosa of the mouth
Suppurative
containing pus; suppuration = the process of pus formation
Torsion
a rotation of a tubular organ along its long axis; a twist about the long axis of a viscus (spleen, lung lobe, liver lobe, umbilical cord, gut)
Tympany
overdistention of an organ or structure with gas
Ulcer
an epithelial or a mucosal defect in which the entire epithelial thickness, down to or through the basement membrane, has been lost
Ulcerated
having a local defect or excavation of the epithelium of an organ or tissue through the basement membrane
Volvulus
a twist across the long axis of the gut
Adenocarcinoma
a malignant tumor of epithelial cells arranged in glandular pattterns
Adenoma
a benign epithelial tumor in which the cells form glandular structures or are derived from glandular epithelium
Amelanotic
refers to a melanoma that contains little or no pigment
Cachexia
a pathologic state characterized by weight loss and anorexia that accompanies some infections and neoplastic disease
Cancer
a group of neoplastic diseases in which there is transformation of normal cells into malignant cells
Carcinoma
a suffix that denotes a malignant tumor derived from epithelial cells
Hemangio-(prefix)
blood vessel. Hemagiosarcoma--malignant tumor of a blood vessel
Histiocytoma
a neoplasm composed of round histiocytic cells
Leio-(prefix)
smooth. Leiomyoma--a benign tumor of smooth muscle cells
Lip(o)-(prefix)
fat; lipid. Lipoma--a benign tumor of fat cells.
Lymphoma
a neoplastic disorder of lymphocytes
Malignant
having the properties of anaplasia, invasiveness and metastasis; tending to become progressively worse and to result in death.
Metastatic
a tumor that has transferred from one organ (or part) to another not directly connected to it.
My-,Myo-(prefix)
muscle. Leiomyosarcoma--a malignant tumor of smooth muscle cells.
Neoplasm
an abnormal mass of tissue with excessive, uncoordinated growth that persists even after the inciting stimulus is gone
Papilloma
the common wart; a benign tumor derived from epithelium
Polyp
a benign growth (hyperplastic or neoplastic) that protrudes from the surface of a mucous membrane
Polypoid
resembling a polyp
Sarcoma
suffix that denotes a malignant neoplasm that is derived from mesenchymal cells (bone, cartilage, connective tissue, fat)
Teratogen
any substance that can cause non-heritable birth defects in a developing embryo or fetus
Tumor
a swelling; a neoplasm
Verruca
a wart
Xantho-(prefix)
yellow. Xanthoma--a yellow tumor
-penia (suffix)
poverty. Thrombocytopenia--decrease in blood platelets
-rhage,-rrhage, -rrhagia
discharge. Hemorrhage--discharge of blood
Anasarca
severe, generalized edema
Anemia
a reduction below normal limits of the total circulating red blood cell mass
Aneurysm
a localized abnormal dilation in a blood vessel
Angiogenesis
the process of post-natal blood vessel formation; seen as part of healing and as part of neoplasia
Ascites
accumulation of edema fluid in the peritoneal cavity
Cardiac tamponade
syndrome of acute cardiac failure caused by filling of the pericardial sac with blood or fluid that prevents normal pumping of the heart
Congestion
accumulation of blood in the vessels of a tissue or at a site dure to impaired outflow
Contusion
a bruise; injury caused by blunt force that damages vessels and causes interstitial bleeding without disruption of tissue continuity
Cor Pulmonale
heart failure that occurs secondary to primary lung disease
Cyanosis
a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive concentration of reducted hemoglobin in the blood
DIC
Disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome; disease process in which wide-spread thrombosis occurs throughout the body; "Death is Coming"
Ecchymosis
blotchy, irregular areas of hemorrhage up to 2-3 cm in size
Edema
increased fluid in interstitial tissue spaces; extravasation of water across the vascular wall into the interstitial spaces
Embolism
the sudden blocking of an artery by a clot of material (embolus). The process of formation of an embolus.
Embolus
a detached intravascular solid, liquid or gaseous mass that is carried by the blood to a site distant from its origin
emia (suffix)
blood. Lipidemia--excess lipid in the blood.
Epicardium
the inner layer of serous pericardium which is in contact with the heart
Epistaxis
bleeding from the nose
Erythropoiesis
increased formation of red blood cells
Hema-,hemato-,hemo-
blood. Hematocrit--the volume percentage of RBCs in whole blood
Hemarthrosis
blood within joint spaces
Hematoma
extravascular blood clot that forms a mass within a tissue
Hematopoiesis
formation of blood cells
Hemopericardium
a spectrum of clinical disorders that are characterized by increased tendency for hemorrhage from usually insignificant injury
Hemoperitoneum
accumulation of blood in the peritoneal cavity
Hemoptysis
coughing up blood from the trachea and bronchi
Hemorrhage
extravasation of blood due to vessel rupture
Hemostasis
process of normal clotting of the blood
Hemothorax
accumulation of blood in the thoracic cavity
Hydro-, hygro-(prefix)
water; fluid. Hydronephrosis--distention of the renal pelvis and calices with urine
Hydrothorax
accumulation of edema fluid in the pleural cavity
Hydroureter
distention of the ureter with fluid due to obstruction
Hyperemia
presence of an increased amount of blood in a part of an organ due to augmented tissue inflow and arteriolar dilation
Hypoxia
any state of reduced oxygen availability
Infarct
death of tissue caused by interruption of its blood supply; ischemic necrosis
Ischemia
state of reduced blood flow
Leuc-, Leuk-(prefix)
white. Leukocyte--white blood cell. Leukopenia--reduction in number of leukocytes in the blood.
Nutmeg liver
gross lesion of chronic passive congestion of the liver; red & tan finely mottled pattern is visible
Pericardial effusion
accumulation of edema fluid in the pericardial sac; hydropericardium
Petechia
minute 1 to 2 mm pinpoint hemorrhages
Phleb-(prefix)
vein. Phlebitis-inflammation of the vein
Purpura
larger hemorrhages (>3mm) scattered on many body surfaces
Shock
syndrome of cardiovascular collapse; final common pathway of many potentially lethal clinical events (hemorrhage, burns, massive trauma)
Syncope
a temporary loss of consciousness due to insufficient cerebral blood flow (fainting)
Thromboembolus
a clot of material that breaks free from a primary site, is transported in the bloodstream and becomes lodged at a secondary site
Thrombosis
inappropriate activation of normal hemostatic processes; intravascular coagulation that produces a thrombus; pathological clotting
Transudate
fluid with a low protein content and a specific gravity < 1.012; an ultrafiltrate of plasma
-uria (suffix)
urine. Proteinuria--protein in the urine
"schisis"
falure to close; palatoschisis
A-, An (prefix)
without. Aplasia--without or lack of formation
Achalasia
failure of a sphincter to relax
Agenesis
absence, failure of formation and primordium is absent
Aplasia
defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue
Arythrogryposis
a congenital angular deformity of joints that is caused by abnormal development of tendons and subsequent contracture
Atresia (adj. atretic)
closed; absence of a normal opening or normally patent lumen
Brachygnathia
protrusion of the upper jaw due to shortening of the lower jaw
cheiloschisis
cleft lip; failure of fusion of the upper lip or philtrum
Congenital
existing at birth; may be due to hereditary factors or some influence occuring during gestation
Dysgenesis
defective embryonic development
Dysplasia
abnormal tissue development; failure of a tissue to form properly; abnormal organization of cells
Dystopia
displacement
Ectopia
tissue forms at the wrong site
Exencephaly
defect in which the brain is abnormally formed and it protrudes through the skull
Freckle
small tan-red or light brown macules that occur on lightly pigmented skin; ephelis
Goiter
an enlarged, hyperplastic thyroid gland
Hamartoma
tumor-like malformation in a tissue
Hereditary
transmitted from parent to offspring
Malocclusion
a failure of the upper and lower incisors to interdigitate properly
Malposition
faulty or abnormal position of a part of the body
Palatoschisis
cleft palate; lateral palatine processes fail to fuse
Polydactyly
having more digits than normal
Prognathia
an abnormal protrusion of the lower jaw
Sclero-(prefix)
hard. Scleroderma--a hardened patch of skin or mucous membrane
Syndactyly
fusion of digits
Urolith
a stone the forms in the urinary tract
-lysis (suffix)
to dissolve. Autolysis--self-dissolution.
-malacia (suffix)
softening. Osteomalacia--softening of bone.
-megaly (suffix)
great, large. Splenomegaly--enlargement of the spleen.
-oid (suffix)
like; resembling. Leukemoid--like leukemia.
-ologous (suffix)
relating to. Homologous--of similar structure.
-oma (suffix)
tumor. Osteoma--tumor of bone.
-opathy (suffix)
disease. Nephropathy--any disease of the kidney.
-orrhea (suffix)
flow; discharge. Leukorrhea--white discharge.
-oscopy (suffix)
view. Endoscopy--to view the inside; specifically, the intestine.
-osis (suffix)
a prccess, especially a morbid one. Diverticulosis--involvement with diverticula.
-ostomy (suffix)
mouth. Gastrostomy--creation of an artificial gastric fistula.
-otomy (suffix)
cut. Cholecystotomy-incision into the gall bladder.
-phage (suffix)
eat; devour. Macrophage-a cell that devours
-plasia (suffix)
to form. Hyperplasia--an increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ
-pnea (suffix)
breath. Dysnea--labored or difficult breathing
-ptosis (suffix)
falling. Ptosis--drooping of the eyelid
-rrhea (suffix)
abnormal or excessive flow. Steatorrhea--excessive lipid in the feces
-stasis (suffix)
standing still. Hemostasis--arrest of blood circulation
-trophy (suffix)
nourish. Dystrophy--defective or faulty nutrition
Adeno- (prefix)
gland. Adenitis-inflammation of a gland
Anis-, aniso (prefix)
unequal, dissimilar. Anisokaryosis--inequality in size of nuclei of cells
Ante- (prefix)
before in time or space. Antemortem--before death
Anti- (prefix)
against; counteracting. Antitoxin--an antibody to a toxin
Arthr(o)- (prefix)
joint; articulation. Arthrolith--a calculus deposit within a joint
Atrophy
a decrease in size of cells or decrease in size of a tissue or organ that was once normal in size; adaptation to a decreased work load or decreased nutritional stimulation
Auto- (prefix)
self. Autolysis--self-dissolution, the postmortem enzymatic degredation of cells
Autophagy
process by which a cell sequesters and digests its own cytoplasm and organelles; lysosomal digestion of the cell's own components
Bilateral
affecting both sides
Biopsy
the removal of a tissue sample from a living animal for diagnostic purposes
Botryoid
shaped like a bunch of grapes
Caseation necrosis
a vairant of coagulation necrosis in which dead tissue has a firm, dry, cheesy texture (dead tissue looks like cottage cheese)
Caseous
having a consistency like that of cottage cheese
Catarrh
inflammation of a mucous membrane with free discharge
cele (suffix)
tumor or herniation. Meningocoele-hernial protrusion of meninges
centesis (suffix)
puncture. Thoracocentesis--puncture of the pleural cavity
Chemotaxis
locomotion of leukocytes that is oriented along a chemical gradient
Chol-(prefix)
bile. Cholelith--gallstone, bile stone
Cirrhosis
progressive loss of hepatic lobular structure with fibrous connective tissue. The liver is subdivided into nodules of proliferating hepatocytes surrounded by scar tissue.
Contralateral
affecting or pertaining to the opposite side
Corrugated
having a ripple-like distortion
Cyst
an abnormal sac filled with gas, fluid, or semi-solid material that is lined by a membrane
Cyst(o)- (prefix)
bladder. Cystitis--inflammation of the bladder
Cyt(o)- (prefix)
cell. Cytomegaly--marked enlargement of cells
Death
the irreversible cessation of activity in the heart, lungs or brain
Dia-(prefix)
through; between. Diarrhea--fecal matter flowing through the bowel
Diffuse
not definitely localized or limited; spread widely through a tissue or substance
Disseminated
describes lesion distribution when an entire organ or structure contains many randomly distributed lesions throughout it
Dys-(prefix)
difficult, bad, abnormal. Dysplasia--abnormal formation. Dyspnea--difficult breathing ; dysphagia--difficult swallowing
ectomy (suffix)
excision. Cholecystectomy--excision of the gallbladder.
Em-, en-, in (prefix)
into. Encyst--to enclose in a cyst or sac
emesis (suffix)
vomit. Hematemesis--vomiting blood.
encephalo-(prefix)
brain
Encephalomalacia
softening of the brain; implies necrosis
Endo-(prefix)
within. Endocardium--the inner lining of the heart. Endometrium--the mucous membrane lining the uterus.
Enter(o)-(prefix)
intestine. Enteritis--inflammation of the intestine
Epi-(prefix)
upon. Eipbulbar--situated on the eyeball
Erosion
a partial loss of epithelial cells that does not extend through the basement membrane
Etiology
the study of the cause of disease
Euchromatin
dispersed, lightly-stained chromatin seen in the nucleus of a cell
Ex(o)-(prefix)
out of; away from; outside of. Exophytic--projecting out from a surface
Fistula
an abnormal opening or connection from one tissue or organ to another
Flocculent
having downy or flaky shreds
Focal
a lesion that occurs as a single, clearly defined focus
Friable
breaks apart or crumbles easily
Gangrene
a severe form of coagulation necrosis; dry and moist types
genesis (suffix)
origin. Spermatogenesis--formation of sperm
Grey matter
the grey nervous tissue of the brain and spinal cord consisting of the cell bodies and dendrites of nerve cells rather than the myelinated axons
Grumose
lumpy or clotted
Hemosiderin
golden yellow to brown pigment derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells
Hernia
a weakness or defect in the wall of a body cavity the permits protrusion of a serosa-lined sac, usually the abdominal cavity, umbilical and inguinal
Hetero-(prefix)
dissimilar. Heterocellular--composed of more than one type of cell
Heterochromatin
condensed, basophilic chromatin seen in the nucleus of the cell
Heterophagy
phagocytosis; process of lysosomal digestion of materials ingested from the extracellular environment
Homeo-, homo-(prefix)
similar; same. Homeotypical--resembling the normal or usual type
Hyper-(prefix)
above and beyond; excessive. Hyperacidity--excessive acidity
Hyperplasia
an increase in size due to cellular division & increased number of cells in a tissue
Hypertrophy
an increase in the size of a cell, or increased size of a tissue or organ caused by cellular enlargement
Hypoplasia
underdevelopment of a tissue or organ due to a decrease in the number of cells
iasis (suffix)
a process, especially a morbid one. Amebiasis--the state of being infected with amebae.
Idiopathic
occurring without known cause
Imperforate
atretic; closed.
Incision
an opening in the skin or an organ made by a sharp cutting object, such as a knife
Indurated
abnormally hard
Infra-(prefix)
beneath. Infraorbital--beneath the eye.
Inter-(prefix)
between. Intercellular--between two cells.
Intra-(prefix)
within. Intracellular--within cells.
Ipsilateral
affecting or pertaining to the same side
Jaundice
generalized yellow discoloration of tissue produced by accumulation of bilirubin in the blood; icterus.
Laceration
an irregular tear in the skin produced by over-stretching
Lesion
an abnormal structural and/or functional change in the body; a pathological change.
Lith-(prefix)
stone. Lithotomy--removal of a stone.
Macro-(prefix)
large. Macrophage--a large, mononuclear, phagocytic blood cell.
Malacia
liquifactive necrosis in the central nervous system
Mega-(prefix)
great. Megakaryocyte--a giant cell of the bone marrow that has a lobulated nucleus & gives rise to platelets.
Melan-(prefix)
black. Melanin--black pigment of the hair, skin, choroid, retina and certain nerve cells.
Mesothelium
the layer of simple squamous epithelium that covers the serous membranes of the body
Metaplasia
a reversible change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another adult cell type; represents an adaptive response of a tissue to stress
Micro-(prefix)
small. Microhepatia--a small liver.
Morphologic diagnosis
the interpretation of the abnormalities in terms of severity, time, lesion and anatomic site.
Mucous (adj.)
relating to or resembling mucous.
Mucus (n.)
the glandular, free slime of the mucous membranes.
Multifocal
a lesion that occurs as several focal areas
Myelo-(prefix)
spinal cord
Myelomalacia
softening of the spinal cord; implies necrosis
Myx-(prefix)
mucus. Myxedema--mucinous edema
Necr-(prefix)
death. Necrosis--the morphologic changes indicative of cell death, indicated by characteristic nuclear and cytoplasmic changes.
Necropsy
examination of an animal body after death
Necrosis
death of cells and tissues in the living animal
Nephr-(prefix)
kidney. Nephrectomy--surgical removal of the kidney.
Nodule
an elevated, spherical lesion that is usually greater than 5 mm across
Oligo-(prefix)
few; scanty.
Papillary
having small, nipple-shaped projections
Papillary necrosis
focal areas of necrosis in the renal medulla, often at the cortico-medullary junction
Para-(prefix)
beside. Parauterine--beside the uterus.
Parenchyma
the essential or functional elements of an organ.
Patent
open, exposed or unobstructed.
Pathogenesis
the sequence of events that leads to a disease or morbid process.
Pathognomonic
specially or decisively characteristic of a disease; sign that indicates with certainty that a specific disease/agent is present
Pathology
the science and study of disease, especially the causes and development of abnormal conditions both gross and microscopic.
Pedunculated
elevated, as on a stem (pedicle)
Peri-(prefix)
around. Peribronchial--around the bronchus
Phago- (prefix)
eat; devour. Phagocyte--any cell that ingests foreign material, other cells or microorganisms
Pinna
the projecting part of the ear
Prognosis
a prediction of the outcome of a pathological process or disease
Regeneration
growth of cells and tissues to replace lost structures
Reniform
shaped like a kidney
Resilient
having the ability to return to an original shape after having been compressed or deformed
Saponification
the hydrolysis of a fat by alkali with the formation of a soap and glycerol
Serosa
any serous membrane
Serpiginous
having a wavy border
Serrated
having a saw-like edge
Sessile
attached by a broad base
Stea- (prefix)
lipid. Steatorrhea--excessive lipid in the feces
Stenosis
a stricture of any canal
Stoma-(prefix)
mouth.
Umbilicated
marked by depressed spots resembling the umbilicus
Unilateral
affecting only one side
Verrucous
rough; wart-like
Viscous
thick; coagulated; sticky or gummy
Abrasion
a scrape of the skin; injury in which superficial epidermis is torn off by friction or force
Anaphylaxis
shock syndrome caused by a generalized IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response that results in widespread vasodilation & increased vascular permeability
Histiocyte
a large, phagocytic cell of the reticuloendothelial system, a macrophage
Opsonization
the process of coating a particle to target it for phagocytosis
Wheal
itchy, transparent, elevated lesion with variable blanching and erythema formed as the result of dermal edema
-itis (suffix)
inflammation. Appendicitis--inflammation of the appendix.
Abscess
a localized collection of pus caused by infection in a tissue, organ or confined space
Amyloid
a pathologic proteinaceous substance deposited between cells in tissues
Amyloidosis
disease process resulting from the deposition of amyloid in tissues. It results from abnormal folding of proteins which are deposited as fibrils in extracellular tissues and disrupts normal functions.
Angio (suffix)
vessel. Lymphangitis--inflammation of a lymph vessel
Arteritis
inflammation of an artery
Blister
a fluid-filled raised lesion; also called a vessicle or a bulla
Cellulitis
a diffuse inflammatory process within solid tissues characterized by edema, redness, pain and interference with function. Cellulitis often occurs in the loose tissues beneath the skin.
Derma-, dermat(o)-
skin. Dermatitis--inflammation of the skin
Diptheritic membrane
a thin coating on the surface of an epithelial lined organ that is composed on necrotic cellular debris, inflammatory cells and fibrin
ectasis (suffix)
to stretch; dilate. Bronchiectasis--dilatation of bronchi. The noun form is ectasia.
Empyema
pus in a body cavity
Exudate
an inflammatory extravascular fluid that has a high protein concentration, cellular debris and a specific gravity > 1.020
Fibrin
a filamentous protein formed from the precursor fibrinogen by the enzyme thrombin
Fibrinoid
having an appearance similar to fibrin
Fibrosis
abnormal deposition of connective tissue; usually occurs in response to defective attempts to repair an injured area of tissue
Gastroenteritis
inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestine
Granuloma
a focus of chronic inflammation consisting of aggregations of macrophages bordered by mononuclear leukocytes surrounded by a rim of fibroblasts or connective tissue
Granulomatous
composed of granulomas
Hypotonia
abnormally decreased tonicity, tension or strength
Inflammation
vascular and interstitial tissue changes that develop in response to tissue injury in an attempt to sequester, dilute & destroy the inciting agent
Intussusception
the telescoping of one segment of bowel into an outer sheath formed by another adjacent segment of bowel;
Leukoencephalitis
inflammation of the white matter of the brain
Lymphadenitis
inflammation of a lymph node
Lymphangectasia
dilation of the lymphatic vessels
Macule
a circumscribed lesion up to 5mm diameter characterized by flatness & distinguished from surrounding tissue by its color
Meninges
the three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord--dura mater, arachnoid and pia mater.
Meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
Meningo-(prefix)
membrane; meninges. Meningoencephalitis--inflammation of the brain and meninges.
Myelin
the lipid substance forming a sheath around the axons of certain nerve fibers.
Osteo-(prefix)
bone. Osteomyelitis--inflammation of bone.
Osteoid
resembling bone.
Panniculitis
an inflammatory condition involving subcutaneous fat
Papule
a small, circumscribed, solid, elevated lesion of the skin
Plaque
an elevated, flat-topped lesion, usually greater than 5 mm across, may be caused by coalescent papules
Pleuropneumonia
inflammation of the lungs and pleura
Pneumonia
inflammation of the lung
Pus
an inflammatory exudate rich in leukocytes and dead cell debris
Pustule
a discreet, raised, pus-filled lesion
Pyelonephritis
inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis often caused by an ascending bacterial infection
Pyo-(prefix)
pus. Pyometra--an accumulation of pus within the uterus
Pyothorax
accumulation of pus or purulent exudate in the thoracic cavity
Rodent ulcer
oral eosinophilic granuloma
Scale
dry, horny, platelike shedding of skin; flaky
Stomatitis
inflammation of the mucosa of the mouth
Suppurative
containing pus; suppuration = the process of pus formation
Torsion
a rotation of a tubular organ along its long axis; a twist about the long axis of a viscus (spleen, lung lobe, liver lobe, umbilical cord, gut)
Tympany
overdistention of an organ or structure with gas
Ulcer
an epithelial or a mucosal defect in which the entire epithelial thickness, down to or through the basement membrane, has been lost
Ulcerated
having a local defect or excavation of the epithelium of an organ or tissue through the basement membrane
Volvulus
a twist across the long axis of the gut