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20 Cards in this Set

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point mutation
base substitution, change in 1 - N base in gene
nonsense mutation
change codes for a stop protein synthesis stops
inducable enzymes/proteins
synthesized only when substrate is present
frame shift mutation
loss or addition of 1 - N base from gene. Change of bas sequence in gene from point of addition or deletion, therefore change in the sequence of amino acids from the point of insertion or deletion.
structural gene process
code for enzymes --- MRNA (transcription) --- translated --- to proteins/enzymes
error frequency of mutations
due to errors during replication (fairly rare)
inducable with substrate
substrate will combine with repressor protein free operator site therefore there will be transcription and translation
Repressible enzymes/proteins
not made unless end product is present (blocks transmission)
missene mutation
change 1 amino acid in protein
Igene repressor protein
end product + repressor = active
Types of enzymes/proteins
Constituative
inducable
repressible
repressible with end product
it will bind to inactive repressor protein and for actual repressor bind to operator OFF therefore no transcription or translation
operator
on/off switch
Operon
coordinated control of several genes in a biochemical pathway
repressible protein
recessor protein inactive aand cant bind to operator therefore ON and transcription and translation
inducable repressor protein
will bind to the operator and turn off the switch and therefore no transcription, no translation, no proteins
Constuative enzymes/proteins
always synthesized Ex - RNA polymerase
promoter
spot at where the RNA polymerase will bind to DNA
Mutagens
induce frequency of mutations = induced mutations
Mutations
stable, heritable change, in the base sequence of DNA change in amino acid sequence of the protein may change the cell characteristic