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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many chromosomes do humans have?
How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?
What is the smaller pieces of information on chromosomes called?
What is each gene a blueprint for?
Specific type of protein
What are the smaller units that make up proteins?
amino acids
How many types of amino acids are there?
How are different types of proteins made?
By different combinations and numbers of the 20 types of amino acids
What are amino acids made of?
Three nucleotide bases found in DNA
What is the shape of DNA?
Double helix
What does "T" (thymine) always bond with?
Adenine "A"
What does adenine "A" always bond with?
Thymine "T"
What does "C" cytosine always bond with?
guanine "G"
What does "G" guanine always bond with?
cytosine "C"
What is a codon?
A special code to make amino acid
What is an mRNA?
Messenger RNA that directs protein production
How many possible codons are there?
What is an initiator codon?
A codon that marks the beginning of a protein sequence
What is the codon at the end of the protein sequence called?
Terminator codon
What does DNA replication create?
Two complete strands of DNA (one for each daughter cell)
What "unzips" DNA before it replicates?
What part of the cell makes proteins for the cell to live?
What does a ribosome need before it can create a protein?
DNA instructions
What is transcription?
part of protein synthesis: mRNA bonds to one of the unzipped strands of DNA
What are the two differences between RNA and DNA?
RNA uses ribose sugar instead of deoxyribose sugar
RNA uses uracil (U) instead of thymine (T)
What collects amino acids to take them to the ribosome in protein sythesis?
tRNA: transfer RNA
What is translation in protein synthesis?
amino acids used to make protein to DNA instructions
What are the two different forms of a gene that occupy corresponding positions on homologous chromosomes (humans have two for each trait)?
What are the building blocks of protein?
amino acids
What are the molecular building blocks of DNA and RNA?
What is an individual who is heterozygous for a recessive trait?
What is the time from one cell division to the next called?
cell cycle
What is a genetic duplicate?
What are two genes that are neither dominant or recessive, neither masking the other?
What is one of two cells resulting from cell division?
daughter cell
What is the loss of a segment of genetic material?
What is a diploid cell?
A cell that has two complete sets of chromosomes
What is a haploid cell?
A cell with only one member of each pair of chromosomes
What are the biological catalysts that speed up a chemical reaction?
What is a genetic marker?
Landmark that identifies a certain spot on a chromosome
What is the species-specific information necessary to build a living organism?
What are all the traits, dominant and recessive that an organism inherits?
What is the phenotype of a person?
All observable traits a person inherits