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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are three host variables that contribute to host resistance exceeding agent virulence (no disease)?
1. natural resistance
2. passive (colostral immunity)
3. acquired immunity (previous exposure, vaccination)
what are three agent variables that contribute to host resistance exceeding agent virulence (no disease)?
1. low level of disease in the environment: lack of infectious dose
2. high infectious dose for disease to occur
3. low level of virulence
what are two host variables that contribute to agent virulence exceeding host resistance (disease present)?
1. loss of natural resistance (stress, presence of other agents)
2. ↓ passive immunity
what are three agent variables that contribute to agent virulence exceeding host resistance (disease present)?
1. ↑ virulence
2. low infectious dose
3. ↑ number of agents in the environment, exceeding infectious dose
what are the two basic criteria for a vaccine?
1. safety
2. efficacy
what are five things to consider about a vaccine before vaccinating the animal?
1. can the immune system response produced by the vaccine control a specific disease?
2. do the risks of the vaccine exceed the benefit from the vaccine?
3. how prevalent if the disease that you are trying to prevent?
4. are there better ways to prevent the disease than vaccination?
5. is it easier to treat the disease if it should occur, rather than vaccinating
what is an essential vaccine?
one that protects against common dangerous diseases, which if not vaccinated against, may lead to significant risk of disease or death
vaccine that protects against common dangerous diseases, which if not vaccinated against, may lead to significant risk of disease or death
essential vaccine
explain herd immunity
- vaccines produce variable responses within herd individuals
- if the agent cannot be propagated among individuals within a population, the agent does not produce disease
- goal is to have enough immune animals within a population to decrease the propagation of the agent between individuals
what are three examples of passive immunization?
1. colostrum
2. transplacental
3. immune serum adimistration (e.g. administration of tetanus antitoxin)
what are two examples of afctive immunization?
1. natural infection
2. vaccination
what are seven advantages of MLVs?
1. few inoculating doses required for a good immune response
2. adjuvants are not necessary
3. induction of interferon
4. less change of hypersensitivity
5. relatively cheap
6. longer immunity
7. stimulate both cellular and humoral response
what are six disadvantages of MLVs?
1. may revert back to pathogenic agent and cause disease
2. should not be used in pregnant animals because of potential effet on fetus (e.g. bluetongue in sheep, panleukopenia in cats)
3. possible risk of contamination of the vaccine with another agent (e.g. BVD vaccine)
4. immunosuppression (e.g. canine distemper, BVD in cattle, feline panleukopenia)
5. handling is important, as mishandling may inactivate the vaccine
6. disinfectant used to "sterilize" the syringe may kill the organism
what are two advantages of killed vaccines?
1. stable in storage
2. safe (unlikely to cause disease, unlikely to contain contaminating organisms)
what are six disadvantages of killed vaccines?
1. generally, need multiple doses
2. immunity may be short-lived
3. increased risk of anaphylaxis
4. expensive compared to MLV
5. reaction to adjuvant (abscess)
6. CMI is not as good as that produced by MLV
what are the three basic types of vaccines?
1. modified live vaccines
2. inactivated (killed) vaccines
3. subunit vaccines
what are four routes of vaccine administration?
1. intranasal
2. oral
3. SC
4. IM
what are three reasons to use intranasal vaccines
1. local immunity in the respiratory passages
2. may produce systemic immunity
3. reduce shedding in carrier animals
what are three reasons to use oral vaccines
1. can be administered in water systems
2. local GI immunity
3. systemicl immunity
where are IM vaccines given to food animals?
cervical muscles
where are four areas to give IM vaccines to horses?
1. cervical
2. pectoral
3. semimembranosus
4. semitendinosus
what are three sites where SC are injections given to large animals?
1. cervical area
2. axillary apces (sheep, goats < 40 lbs)
3. flank (pigs < 40 lbs)
when are vaccines given to the dam for colostral immunity in
- multiparous animals?
- primiparous animals?
- multiparous: 3 weeks prior to parturition
- primiparous: 6 weeks and 3 weeks prior
what are three events that may occur in an animal's life that you wuld want to give a vaccine for active immunity?
1. increased times of exposure
2. increased times of stress
3. disease related to pregnancy
how long prior to a risk of exposure or lower susceptibility (e.g. stress, breeding) should an animal be vaccinated for active immunity?
3 weeks
what is Dr. Pelzer's general rule of when young animals need their second booster vaccination for
- small animals?
- large animals?
- small: 15 weeks
- large: 6 months
what are four reasons that a correctly administered vaccine may fail, even though the animal responded to the vaccine?
1. given too late; already diseased
2. wrong strain or organism given
3. non-protective antigens given
4. overwhelming challenge
what are four reasons why an animal may fail to respond to a correctly administered vaccination?
1. passive protection (e.g. colostral)
2. immunospuuressed (e.g. stress, drugs)
3. biological variaton
4. bad vaccine (expired, improperly stored)
what are three examples of a failure of a response to a vaccine due to incorrect administration?
1. inappropriate route of administration
2. death of live vaccine (e.g. dashboard syndrome)
3. animals vaccinated too early (protective antigens)
what are three core small ruminant prepartum vaccines?
1. Clos. Perfringens C & D
2. Clos. Tetani
3. Parainfluenza 3
what are the our core horse vaccines?
Eastern & Western Encephalitides
West Nile Virus
what are 8 risk-based horse vaccines?
Equine Herpes Virus
Equine Influenza
Potomac Horse Fever
Equine Viral Arteritis
Rotaviral Diarrhea
what causes myeloencephalitis in horses?
Equine Herpes Virus (Rhinopneumonitis)
what are the four critical use vaccines for cattle?
Clostridial Vaccines
comment on the effectiveness of Manheimia hemolytica vaccine
Probably decreases severity but not incidence
for what two diseases are cattle vaccinated for E. Coli? What is the vaccine made from?
1. Mastitis
2. Neonatal diarrhea (K-99)
- made from toxoid
what is the most important reason to vaccinate cattel for Lepto?
what is so special about Dr. Schurig’s RB-51 Brucellosis vaccine?
no capsule. Only CMI response. So vaccine won't' interfere with test and slaughter program to eliminate Brucellosis
according to Dr. Whittier, what do vaccines do?
Modify Disease
when should MLV vaccines not be used in cattle?
- Not in (non-vaccinated) pregnant cows
- Not in stressed cattle
what are the four categories of calves, based on their previous health histories?
I . Category I - Calves that have been fully preconditioned.
2. Category II - Farm fresh calves
3. Category III - Fresh sale barn calves
4. Category IV - Stale calves from any source (calves that are resold at multiple markets and not taken care of very well)