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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the routine horse vax?
West Nile (Serum or Plasma)
What are the optional horse vax?
Tetanus antitoxin
Strep equi
C. botulinum
When to give tetanus toxoid vax?
may booster if wounded
When to give EEE/WEE vax?
Semi-annual- if heavy mosquito areas
When to give Influenza vax?
Intranasal vax
When to give Rhinopneumonitis vax? for respiratory disease
2-4x/year intranasal
When to give Rhinopneumonitis vax? for abortion prevention
5,7,9 months gestation
When to give Rabies vax?
maybe better in fall when wildlife trying to get into barn for the winter
When to give WNV vax?
semi-annual in heavy mosquito areas
Potomac Horse Fever vax
given apr & aug if given @ all
only protects against 1 of the 3 serovars
Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis vax
given annually when given
efficay not proven
Potential to seroconvert
Strangles vax
semi-annual when given
IM & intranasal available
Botulism vax
only given in endemic regions
1 month pre-partum, requires 3 dose series
Stallion EVA vax
only given in endemic regions
given annually/1 month prebreeding
Mare EVA vax
only given in endemic regions
given annually, need to isolate mare after breeding
only need if breeding male is seropositive for EVA
Rotavirus vax
only given in endemic regions
given @ 8,9,10 months of gestation
Routine foal vax
More optional Foal vax
EWT vax
three way for:
When to give tetanus, EEE, WEE WNV, & Rhino vax for foals?
3-4 months if mom not vax'd
6 months if she was
2-3 boosters needed
When to give ifluenza vax for foals?
6 months if mom not vax'd
9 months if she was
2-3 boosters needed
When to give rabies vax for foals?
3-4 months if mom not vax'd
6 months if she was
1-2 boosters needed
General rule for when to give vaccines for insect vectored diseases
Spring- need to

fall maybe
General rule for when to give vaccines for respiratory diseases
Fall- need to

spring maybe
i.e.=Influenza, rhino 2x+/yr
When to vax a pregnant mare?
annual vax before breeding season
-no vax in first 90 days of gestation
-vaccines in last month help put antibodies for that in colostrum
-don't (generally) use MLVs
What are the 5 causes of vax failures?
-vaccinate too close to exposure
-overwhelming exposure
-vaccinating stressed animals
-vaccine only partially protective (doesn't get all strains/serovars)
-vax no good= out of date/ not stored properly
How to reduce vax reactions?
mix contents of syringe
don't push air out of syringe with needle is attached
stick w/ clean, dry needles
leave one needle in vial to draw up vax, put new needle on
vaccinate clean, dry area on horse
give IM, before Intranasal= not as excited yet
Resistance developing to Ivermectin
Prazinquantel kills tapeworms
When to deworm?
usually every 2 months
or can be continuous
kills encysted small strongyles
given q3 months caution in young & debilitated, b/c stored in fats (no fat stored in nervous tissue)
Can be given everyday, but doesn't kill stomach bots
kills encysted small strongyles
Advantages of anthelmintic rotations
better to use what's need to kill what's on YOUR farm
Things you can give to control bots?
only use after first good frost (kills flies so don't just come back)
What to give to control small strongyles?
Fenbendazole- treat 5 days in a row
may cause intestinal damage (diarrhea, colic) when they excyst
What to give to control tapeworms?
Strongid P-@ a double dose
30 days of Strongid C
Problems of Large strongles?
Migrate through blood vessels & cause decreased blood supply to depended organs
Strongyloides westerni
Transmitted in the milk
Cause of foal heat diarrhea (7-14days after foaling)
Short prepatent peroid
deworm all foals w/ diarrhea
Causes uveitis & skin lesions
Tail rubbing
tape test
Become problems when horses & donkeys are together
most asymptomatic, can cause persistent cough
Trichostrongylus axei
problem when horses & ruminants mixed
External parasites of horses
Lice & mange
use ivermectin / moxidectin to treat
Preventative measures for parasites
daily pyrantel
Rotate pastures or type of animal on pature (ruminants)
decrease #s
treat before turning out
Treatment of foals for parasites
treat them every month begins @ 4-6 weeks of age
Strategic deworming methods
deworm in spring & fall
deworm based on fecals
deworm prior to events exposing to new parasites (foaling, new pastures)
Method of administration of dewormers
pellets, pastes/gels/liquids, injections, stomach tubes
when using pastes/gel/liquids weigh tape them, clean food out of mouth, INSURE ingestion
Continuous deworming programs
Strongid C
given everyday year round
only removes the adult stages, not larval
still need to treat for other parasites: bots, onchocera, larval stages,
Continuous-intermittent deworming programs
Continous in late spring, summer & early fall
Intermittent late fall, winter & early spring
Signs of barn ventilation
stagnant air
ammonia @ bedding level
spider webs
hay stored over stalls
Typical vaccination protocol for a traveling horse
Rabies & WNV 1x/yr
Influenza & Rhino 2x/yr
EWT (EEE, WEE, tet) 1-2x/yr
Potomac 2x/yr
Strep 1-2x/yr
Vaccination protocol for a backyard horse
EWT 1-2x/yr
Rabies 1x/yr
WNV 1x/yr
+/- PHF 2x/yr
Critical Use Vaccines in cattle
Clostridial Vaccines
IBR/PI‑3 Choices
MLV Parenteral
MLV Intranasal
Chemically Altered
Difference immunity development between MLV & killed vaccines
MLV-good immunity w/in 7-10 days w/ no booster

Killed- need booster(s) to aquire adequate immunity may take months
MLV considerations
Not in (non-vaccinated) pregnant cows
Not in stressed cattle
Very effective
Very economical
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Vaccine Choices
Concerns of MLV for BVD
potential to exacerbate preexisting problems
ability to overwhelm calves that are peristently infected
a cheap and effective vaccine in mature, healthy cows
Potential Clostridial species to vaccinate for
perfringens C&D (cross protects against type B)
Cattle Lepto Vax
killed products or bacterins
generally used to prevent abortion
Not strong initiators of immunity=frequent boosters needed
Vax for Pregnant cows
Killed IBR
Killed BVD
Leptospirosis (2 X per year?)
K99 E.coli?
Vax for Open cows
Leptospirosis (2 X per year?)
K99 E.coli
Vax for Bulls
Leptospirosis (2 X/ year?)?
Vax for yearnling heifers
Leptospirosis (2 X/ year?)
MID-GESTATION Vax for Preg Cows & Heifers
Given @ Pregnancy Check
Vax for PRECALVING Cows:
E. Coli vaccination booster
Vax for Precalving Two year old Heifers
E. coli vaccination (2 doses)7 way Clostridium (2 doses)
Vax for Calves
7-Way clostridium @ 3-4 months of age
repeat preweaning
Categories of STOCKER CALVES
I- Calves that have been fully preconditioned
II- Farm fresh calves
III- Fresh sale barn calves
IV- Stale calves from any source
Determination of Vaccination protocol in stocker calves
Depends on when calves arrive
-all @ once
-multiple large shipments
-frequent small shipments
Vax needed for Cat I calves
Vaccinations: None needed
Anthelmintics: None needed
Coccidiacontrol:Deccox 14 days
Bovatec 2 months
Vax needed for Cat II calves
Vaccinations: MLV IBR/Pl-3/ BVD in heavy calves
Killed IBR/PI-3/BVD in light calves
7 way clostridial to all calves
MLV or toxoid P. hemolyticum for continuous receiving, not necessary for All In All Out
Anthelminthics: Yes
Coccidia control: As Cat I
Vax needed for Cat III calves
Vaccinations: Killed IBR/PI-3/BVD and MLV IN IBR/PI-3 & 7 way clostridial to all calves
MLV or toxoid P. hemolyticum for continuous receiving, not necessary for All In All Out
Revaccinate in 4 weeks
Anthelminthics: Yes
Coccidia control: As Cat I
Vax needed for Cat IV calves
Vaccinations: Killed IBR/PI-3/BVD & 7 way clostridial to all calves
MLV or toxoid P. hemolyticum for continuous receiving, not necessary for All In All Out
Revaccinate in 1 & 4 weeks
Anthelminthics: Yes
Trichomonas - Tritrichomonas fetus
6 Serovars of Lepto
Leptospira interrogans
L. grippotyphosa
L. canicola
L. hardjo
L. pomona
L. icterohaemorrhagiae
Brucellosis in Cattle
Eradicate in 98?
Regulations persist!
Calfhood Vaccinate and test (certify and accredit) if:
Frequently ship
Buyers or sellers require
General purpose of vaccines
To modify diseases
the "art" of vaccination
choice of antigens
vaccine types
timing of administration
Which vaccines to use?
Reputable company
Handled correctly
Consider economy, convenience
Differences between Dairy cattle vax program
Add BRSV (Resp. Syncytial Virus)
add lepto hardjo-bovis (not in 5 way)
add lepto vibrio if natural service
add E. coli @ drying off (for mastitis)
Routine prepartum Vax for S.Ruminants
done 3-4 weeks prior
Clostridium perfringens C&D
Clostridium tetani
Optional prepartum Vax for S.Ruminants
Clostridial 8-way (not recommended)
E. Coli (k-99)
Clostridium perfringes C & D vax in S. Ruminant
cross protects against type B
prevents hemorrhagic enteritis & overeating disease
Clostidium tetani in S. Ruminant
Esp. important when horses are around
protects neonates @ docking, castration, & dehorning
Parainfluenza 3 vax in S. Ruminant
protects against the viral disease that predisposes to bacterial pneumonia
given intranasally
reduces shedding in the dam, ↑ colostral immunity
Clostidrium 8-way vax in S. Ruminant
not recommended prepartum
protects against, chauvei, septicum, novyi, hemolyticum, perfringes C&D (&B) & tetani
Cattle vax usually don't have tetani
Preweaning Vax in S. Ruminant
Clostridium C & D, & tetani
given 2 weeks before weaning & @/right after weaning
needed for the stress of feed change, prevent overeating disease
Prebreeding vax in S. Ruminant
used to prevent abortion need to be given 30 days before males are introduced
Campylobacter fetus ssp fetus & jejuni
Chlamydia psittaci
Clostridium 8-way
Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus & jejuni vax prebreeding in S. Ruminant
Most important prebreed vax
Booster experienced moms 30 days prebreeding
3 vax needed for premiparous
-1, +3 weeks, +60-90 days later
Chlamydia psittaci vax prebreeding in S. Ruminant
can probably do w/o, vax not always available
Booster experienced moms 30 days prebreeding
2 shots needed for premiparous: 60 & 30 days prior to the male
Clostridium 8-way vax in S. Ruminant
Booster experienced moms 30 days prebreeding
2 shots needed for premiparous: 60 & 30 days prior to the ma
Prebreeding vax for rams & bucks
Clostridium perfringes C&D and tetani
(can just give the 8-way)
Foot Rot vax
Other vax used in S. Ruminants
Foot Rot
Contagious Ecthyma/ Orf
K-99 E. coli
Foot Rot Vaccine in S. Ruminants
need to use the Vax for sheep not cattle (sheep have Dicheliobacter)
used as preventative or as part of treatment
best given @ wet times
bi-annual boostering
Orf vaccine in S. Ruminants
contagious ecthyma
don't use unless farm has orf
vaccinate replacement animals
need to paint on scratched skin (think small pox)
neonates @ 2-3 days
k-99 E. coli vaccines in S. Ruminants
given when you give clostridium vax
use if scours is a problem
Rabies vaccines in S. Ruminants
may be indicated in endemic areas or w/ high value animals
3-year vax
Deworming in S. Ruminants
Strategic deworming based on fecals
kids-every 4 weeks in summer
adults-every 6 weeks in summer
& prior to breeding, birthing
Goats are usually treated off-label
Albendazole in S. Ruminants
an anthelmenthic
don't use 30 days before, during or 30 days after breeding season b/c teratogenic
External parasite control in S. Ruminants
Lice in fall & winter= permethrin
Mites = Amitraz
Peculiarities of Swine vaccines
only vaccinate for what's on the farm
Prefarrowing vax for swine
given 2-3 weeks prior;
1st time mom's need 2 vax, start 3-6 week prior
Erysipelix, Atrophic rhinitis
E. coli