Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which does latitude measure
north and south
which does longitude measure
east and west
What is lithosphere?
the solid portion of Earth. and tectonic plates consisting of the crust and upper rigid mantle.
what is atmosphere?
air that surrounds the earth
what is hydrosphere?
water in all of its forms on earth
what is biosphere?
everywhere on eath where living organisms can exist.
Name the 7 parallels starting from the north pole 90 degrees north
1. North pole
2. arctic circle
3. tropic of cancer
4. equator
5. tropic of capricorn
6. antartic circle
7. south pole
what is the great circle?
circle on the globe formed by the intersection of Earths surface with any plane that passes through earths center
what is the small circle?
circle on a globe formed by the intersection of earths surface with any plane that does not pass through earths center
what is that circle of illumination?
the edge of the sunlit hemisphere that is a great circle seperating earth into a light half and a dark half
what is parallel and what is meridians?
parallel is a line connecting all points of the same latitude for example: the equator.

meridians is
What does divergent mean?
when two plates are moving APART
what does convergent mean?
when two plates are coming TOGETHER
What does it mean when plates transform?
two plates slide past each other
is rock created or destroyed after plates move DIVERGENT (apart)
rock is creates at mid-ocean ridge (basalt)
what is the tectonic stress after Divergent movement?
what are the tectonic activities after a divergent movement?
normal faulting,
strick-slip faulting and volcanism (basaltic)
Is rock created or destroyed after a convergent movement? (TOGETHER)
more rock is destroyed by subduction than created by volcanism
what is the tectonic stress after a convergent movement?
what are the tectonic activities after a convergent movement?
folding reverse,
faulting and
volcanism (andesitic)
What are the three kinds of convergent boundry subtypes?
1. ocean to continent (subduction)
2. Ocean to ocean (subduction)
3. Continent to continent (no volcanism/subduction),no rock is created or destroyed
What are some examples of major folded mountain systems?
alps and andes
what is subduction?
ocean to continent boundry
is rock created or destroyed after plates TRANSFORM?
rock is neither created nor destroyed (no volcanism/subduction)
what is the tectonic stress for TRANSFORM?
what are tectonic activites for transform?
strick slip faulting
how are landforms created?
rivers, volcanoes, glaciers, wind, waves, groudwater
Which of the following landforms belongs to the first order of relief?
North America Continent.
Glaciers erode by means of plucking and ____________.
what is the order of relief?
scale at which we VIEW the earth
what what does the lithospere consist of?
crust and upper mantle
who came up with continental drift theory? and who later helped prove it?

then, hess
What does sandstone turn into?
what does shale turn into?
waht does limestone turn into?
whats the most common extrusive ingeous rock?
what is the most common intrusive igneous rock?
what 3 kinds of rock is sedimentary?
1, sandstone
2. shale
3. limestone
what is a tectonic force?
tension, compression, sheer.. causes MOVEMENT
how are igneous rocks formed? in and ex
when magma cools
how are intrusive rocks made?
cooled below surface
how are extrusive rocks formed?
volcanic. formed on surface
how are sedimentary rocks formed?
consolidation of deposited particles
how are metamorphic rocks formed?
when heat and or pressure act on existing igneous and sedimentary rocks
what is the theory of sea floor spreading?
the pulling apart of lithosperic plates to permit the ride of deep seated magma to Earths surface in midocean areas
what is the asthenosphere?
plastic layer off the upper mantle that underlies the lithophere. VERY hot and easily deformed
what is subduction?
downward movement
Who came up with the pot of water theory?
what is hotspots
a location where mantle magma rises to, or almost to Earths surface
who came up with magnetic stripes?
Matthews and Vine
who introduced the continental drift?
alfred wegener
Pangaea broke into two large land masses:Laurasia/Gondwanaland.

Which was North and which was South?
what are the 4 months and in what order starting west and moving counter clockwise
1. June
2. september
3. december
4. march
what is the def of Volcanism?
the upward movement of molten material (magma) and its coolign above earths surface
what are the 4 regions on earth in order starting from the outer most layer
1. crust
2. mantle
3. outer core
4. inner core
how much percent does the crust make up of the earth?
less than 1 percent
about how much does the mantle make up of the earth?
what is asthenosphere?
(weak sphere)- when rocks get so hot that they lose their strength and are easily deformed
which region is made up of liquid?
outer core
in the begining, all rocks were ________.
igneous rock
what are extrusive rocks? (volcanic rock)
molten rock on earths surface. solidifying quickly in open air
what are intusive rocks? (plutonic rock)
rocks that from beneath the earths surface
What is batholith?
the largest and most amorphous intrusion. form the core of major mountain ranges
what is laccolith?
when magma is forced between horizonal layers of preexitsting rock.
what is dikes?
the most widespread of all intrusive form. a vertical sheet of magma goes upwards into preexisting rock
what is a sill?
long, thin intrusive body. formed when magma is forced between strata that already is in place. less common than dikes.
In extrusive volcanism, what are cinder cone?
volcano formed primarily from the expulsion of cinders, ash, and other solid rock fragments.
How does a glacier develope?
when the amount of snow that falls in a winter is greater than the amount that melts that following summer over a perios of years.

after many years, the old snow is turned to ice

the ice mass begins to move under the pull of gravity.`
when was the pleistocene epoch?
1.8 million years ago to 20 thousand yaers ago. ice age
dif. types of glaciers:

what is a continental ice sheet?
covers large parts of continent
what is the impact of continental ice sheets?
ice bergs
fluctuating sea level
land bridge
isostatic rebound
what are valley glaciers?
tongues of ice that travel down valleys in the mountains
what is a piedmont glacier?
when the edge of a valley glacier reaches a flat area and so escapes from the confines of its alley walls
what are alpine glaciers?
those that deelop indiidually high in the mountains rather than as a part of a broad icefield, usually at the heads of valleys
what are cirque glaciers?
very small alpine glaciers confined to the basin where they originate