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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
gel made from algae which provides an ideal growth medium
Agar jelly
one form of a gene
allele
the selection by humans of individual plants or animals for breeding in order to enhance a desired characteristic
artificial selection
reproduction which does not involve the fusing of gametes. Results in genetically identical offspring
asexual reproduction
a person who carries a recessive allelle for a particular disease
carriers
organisms which are genetically identical to one another
clones
rod shaped bodies found in the nucleus of cells that contain genetic information (DNA)
chromosomes
the material inside the nucleus of cells which carries genetic information. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid
DNA
an allele that always expresses itself whether it is partnered by a recessive allele or by another like itself
dominant
hardened remains or impression of an organism that existed in the geological past
fossil
the sex cells -sperm in males, ova (eggs) in females
gametes
basic unit of genetic material that is inherited from our parents. A gene is a section of DNA which controls part of a cell's chemistry - particularly protein production
gene
the genetic make-up of an individual organism
genotype
having different alleles for a particular characteristic
heterozygous
having the same alleles for a particular characteristic
homozygous
chemical messengers produced in glands and carried by the blood to specific organs in the body
hormone
a hormone which regulates the level of sugar in the blood. It is produced in the Islets of Langerhans, in the Pancreas.
insulin
process of cell division which creates sex cells
meiosis
an error in DNA replication which results in a change in an organism's genetic blueprint. Some mutations are random, others are caused by environmental factors
mutation
the natural process whereby the best-adapted individuals survive longer and have more offspring, thereby spreading their characteristics through a population. 'Survival of the fittest'.
natural selection
observable characteristics of an organism - the visible expression of its genetic make-up
phenotype
an allele which only expresses itself when it is partnered by another like itself
recessive allele
difference between individuals; distance from the norm
variation
a fertilised egg, resulting from the union of two gametes
zygote