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67 Cards in this Set

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Loiasis
Loa Loa
Nematode spread by Chrysops fly
Infects tissue and under surface of eye
Onchocerciasis
Onchocerca volvulus
Nematode spread by simulium (black flies)
In tissues and eyes
treat with ivermectin
Leishmaniasis
aka kala azar
Leishmania spp.
Protozoan spread by sand flies
2 forms: cutaneous and visceral
visceral results in swelling in spleen and liver in years
African sleeping sickness
trypanosoma brucei
Protozoan spread by tsetse flies (glossina)
Chronic fever leading to paralysis and death
Chagas Disease
Trypanosoma cruzi
protozoan spread by triatomine bug (kissing bug)
Chronic damage to heart and digestive tract
Plague
Yersinia pestis
Bacteria spread by Xenopsylia (fleas)
Bubonic, pneumonic, septicemic
Typhus
Rickettsia typhi and other Rickettsia
Rickettsia spread by fleas, lice and ticks
high fever, not darrhea
Bartonellosis
Bartonella spp.
Bacteria spread by fleas and lice
Cat scratch disease
Trench Fever
Oroya fever (by sandflies)
Babesiosis
Babesia spp.
Protozoan spread by ticks
malaria like symptoms
Ehrlichiosis
Ehrlichia spp.
Rickettsia spread by ticks
usually asymptomatic
Lyme disease
Borrelia burgdorferi
Bacteria spread by Ixodes ticks
Bulls eye rash - erythema migrans
neurologic symptoms
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Rickettsia rickettsi
Rickettsia spread by ticks
Most common rickettsial disease in US
Tularemia
Francisella tularensis
Bacteria spread by ticks
aka Rabbit fever
4 Types of mosquitos
Anopheles
Aedes
Culex
Mansonia
Glossina
tsetse fly
spreads african sleeping sickness
Phlebotomous
Sandflies
Spread leishmaniasis
Simulium
Blackfly
spreads Onchocerciasis
Chrysops
Deer Fly
spreads Loasis
Reduvid Bug
kissing bug
Spreads Chagas disease
Xenopsylia
Flea
Spreads plague and typhus
Pediculus
Body Louse
Spreads trench fever
Leptotrobidium
Mite
Ixodes
Tick
Spreads Lyme, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, RMSF and tularemia
Dracunculiasis
Guinea worm
Dracunculus medinensis
Nematode: consuming infected flea larvae in water
grows to 3 feet and painfully emerges
Schistosomiasis
Schistosoma spp.
Trematode/Blood fluke: contact with snail infested water
enters through skin, damages bladder
treat with praziquantel
Ascariasis
Ascaria lumbricoides
Nematode: eating fecally contaminated food or soil
intestinal
>1 billion worldwide infected
Trichuriasis
Trichuris trichiura
whipworm: eating fecally contaminated food or soil
795 million worldwide infected
Hookworm
Necator americanus, etc
Nematode: enters though bare feet but lives in intestine
bleeding and nutritional deficiency
Geohelminth
treated with albensazole
Clonorchiasis
Clonorchis sinensis
Trematode / Liver fluke: eating undercooked freshwater fish
mainly in Asia
Echinococcosis
Hyatid cyst disease
Cestode/tapeworm: mostly in dogs and sheep
causes cysts in liver and lungs in humans
Enterobiasis
Enterobius vermicularis
Nematode/pinworm
most common intestinal parasite in US children, may cause itchiness
collect with tape at night
Paragonimiasis
Paragonimus westermani
Trematode/lung fluke: from eating undercooked freshwater crabs or crayfish
Strongyloidiasis
Strongyloides stercoralis
Nematode/threadworm: enters body through skin
Taeniasis
Cestode/tapeworm: eating undercooked meat
can embed in muscles, brain, and eyes
Trichinosis
Trichinella spiralis
Nematode: eating undercooked pork or beef
infects tissues, found worldwide
Ringworm
Fungal: Not a worm infection
HAART
Highly active antiretroviral therapy
ART
antiretroviral drug
HIV prevention ABCs
A: Abstinence
B: Be Faithful
C: Condom
Chlamydia
Chlamydia trachomatis
Bacterial STI
Often asymptomatic, but can cause scarring and pain in women
Trachoma
Chlamydia trochomatis
Bacterial STI
#1 cause of infectious blindness
Gonorrhea
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Bacterial STI
Often asymptomatic but can cause scarring and pain in women
Hepatitis B
Hepadnaviridae family virus
Viral STI
Infection can become chronic, leading to liver disease
vaccine available
Hepatitis C
Flaviviridae family virus`
Viral STI
Can cause cirrhosis of the liver
No vaccine, treat with interferon
Herpes simplex
herpesviridae
Viral STI
HSV-1: cold sores
HSV-2: genital sores
no vaccine
Human papilomavirus
papoviridae family
Viral STI
Can cause genital warts and cervical cancer
Syphilis
Treponema pallidum
Bacterial STI
3 stages: rash or chancre, rash, weaken arteries and nervous system impairment
Trichomoniasis
Trichomonas vaginalis
Protozoan (flagellate) STI
Top 3 nosocomial infections
Pneumonia (Pseudomonas aeruginosa)
Gastroenteritis (E. Coli)
Bed Sores (S. aureus)
Common drug resistant bacteria
MRSA: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and VRSA
VRE: vancomycin-resistant enterococci
DRSP: drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
MDR-TB + XDR-TB
Marburg virus
Filoviradae family
Viral infection
hemorrhagic fever
transmission mode/reservoir unk
2005 outbreak in Angola
Ebola Virus
Filoviradae family
Viral infection
hemorrhagic fever
bloodborne + p2p / reservoir unk
identified in 1976
Hendra virus
Paramyxoviradae family
Viral infection
animal reservoir, likely bats
outbreaks in AUS
encephalitis
Nipah virus
Paramyxoviradae family
Viral infection
animal reservoir, likely bats
outbreaks in Malaysia and Singapore
encephalitis
Lassa fever
Arenaviradae family
Viral infection
Res. in rats, trans. in excreta
most common complication in hearing loss
West Africa
Q fever
Coxiella burnetti
Bacterial infection
Res - Cattle, sheep, goats
Trans - inhalation of excreta
highly infectious (single org)
can damage heart valves
3 forms of anthrax
Cutaneous (eschar)
Gastrointestinal
Inhalation (no p2p)
Botulism
Clostrium botulinum
Bacterial / Spore / Toxin
Trans - food or wound entry
Symptoms - double vision, paralysis
blocks release of AcH
Ricin
Toxin
Trans - inhalation, ingestion, absorption
Symptoms - difficulty breathing, multi-organ failure
Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B
Toxin
Trans - inhalation or ingestion
Food poisoning
high case fatality if not treated
Glanders
Burkholderia mallei
bacterial infection
Res - horses, donkeys, mules
Trans - contact with infected animals
forms skin lessions, organ abscesses
Melioidosis
Burkholderia pseudomallei
Bacterial infection
aka whitmore's disease
trans - soil and water
SE Asia and AUS
forms skin lessions, organ abscesses
Anthrax
Bacillus anthracis
Bacteria / spore infection
3 types / transmissions
Res - endemic in some animals, soil
can remain infectious 50 years
Smallpox
Variola major, orthopoxvirus
Viral infection
Trans - airborne / droplets
most infectious when pox first appear
vaccine up to 4 days post infection
extemities to trunk
Tularemia
Francisella tularensis
Bacterial infection
Res - rabbits
Trans - animal contact, insects, soil
low infective dose, peumonic
Brucellosis
Brucella spp.
Bacterial infection
trans - direct skin, unpast dairy
low dose / very stable