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58 Cards in this Set

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Innate Defenses of GI tract
Mouth?
Saliva = Neutral
Ca, Buffers, lysozymes, amylase, lactoferrin, IgA
Innate Defenses of GI tract
Stomach?
pH = Acidic (1.0-3.0)
Innate Defenses of GI tract
Pancreas?
pH = Alkaline
Trypsin (duodenum)
Insulin ([glucose] in blood)
Innate Defenses of GI tract
Liver?
Neutralization of Poisons
degrade Medications
Hemoglobin = Yellow pigment
Normal Flora
Mouth
300+ species
Strep, (lactic acid)
Aerobic/anaerobic
Normal Flora composition
Intestines
10(^11) microbes in feces (1/3 weight of feces)
Normal Flora
Intestines (Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum)
Enterococci, Lactobacilli
Normal Flora
Intestines (Colon)
Enterobacteria, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Clostridia, Streptococcus, Staphylcocccus
Normal Flora
Biosymbioants?
Riboflavin, folic acid, panthotenic acid, biotin, niacin, Vitamin K
Dental Caries
Agent?
Dentin Agent?
Streptococcus mutans
Dentin= Lactobacillus (+rod)
Dental Caries
Mode of Action?
Formation of glucans (from sucrose)
Cariogenic plague = acidity
Dental Caries
Fluoride Mode of Action?
Neutralize the H+ formed by fermenting of Lactic Acid.
Streptococcus Mutans?
Role in Dental Caries (Mechanism)?
Hydrolyze Sucrose --> Glucose and fructose
Glucose assembled to CAPSULE, capsules form glucan (plaque)
Dental Caries (tooth decay)?
Fructose is fermented into
Lactic Acid (Lactobacillus)
Dentin Decay (agents)?
Lactobacillus or
Fusobacterium
reaches Pulp and Pain, (root canal therapy)
Periodontal Disease
Agent?
Affects?
Porphyromonas gingivalis
Inflammation affecting Gums
Trech Mouth
Agents?
Spirochetes and Anaerobic
Acute Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
Helicobacter pylori gastritis
Agent?
Common Name?
Morphology?
Helicobacter pylori
Peptic Ulcers
- microaerophilic, sheathed flagella
Peptic Ulcers
Treatment?
Antibiotic,
Peptic Ulcers
Pathogenesis?
Bacteria make urease (neut Stomach pH)
Inflammatory resp., thinning of mucus layer = damage to epithelium
Herpes Simplex Labialis
Common Name?
Latentency?
Cold Sore/Fever Blister
Latent, in Sensory Nerves
HSV (type I) Labialis
Treatment?
Mode of Action?
Acyclovir, penciclovir
Inhibit HSV DNA polymerase
Mumps
Agent?
Vaccine?
Paramyxovirus
ss RNA
Vaccine = YES
Attenuated
Mumps
Site?
Parotid Glands
Meninges
Testicles
Spread via Blood
Humans ONLY source of Virus
Diarrheal Disease
Causative Agents?
EPEC, ETEC, Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter
Cholera
Agent?
Mode of Action?
Vibrio cholerae
- rod (comma)
Tolerates Alkaline, High Salt
Exotoxin (A-B) A = Ribosilation of G protein (cAMP inc = Cl-, Na+ out)
Cholera
Identification?
Attachment?
Rice Water Stool
Pili adhesins (others)
Cholera
Source?
Vaccine?
Seafood, fecal contamination
Vaccine = YES
Shigellosis
Agent?
Symptoms?
Shigella species
- entero, non-motile
Dysentery
Hemolytic uremic syndrome
Shigellosis
Transmission?
Treatment?
Fecal-Oral
Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole)
Shigellosis
Virulence?
Ability to form Actin filament "tail" to move from one cell to other
Neutrophils cause epithelial cell destruction
Escherichia coli gastroenteritis
4 Groups?
Enterotoxic, Enteroinvasive, Enteropathogenic, Enterohemorrhagic
ETEC
Common Name?
Mode of Action?
Travelers diarrhea
Cholera-like toxin
EIEC
Causes?
Mode of Action?
Dysentery
Shigella-like
EPEC
Location?
Diarrheal outbreaks in
hospitals and nurseries
EHEC
Common Name?
Mode of Action?
Enterhemorrhagic
O157:H7
Hamburger
Shiga-like Toxin
E Coli
Assoicated w/ Blood in stool
EIEC, EHEC
E Coli
Associated w/ Watery Diarrhea
ETEC, EPEC
Salmonellosis
Agents?
Vaccine?
Other Disease?
2400 + Strains of Salmonella
-, rod, entero
non spore, facultative anaerobic
Vaccine= YES
Typhoid Fever
Salmonellosis
Speed?
Symptoms?
8-42 hrs.
fever, severe headache, abdominal pain, internal bleeding, shock (may have bloody stool)
Salmonellosis
Common Agents?
Salmonella
enterica, enteritidis, typhimurium
Salmonellosis
Mode of Action?
cAMP, cyclic adenosine, monophosphate = active fluid secretion
Typhoid Fever
Agent?
Reservoir?
Salmonella Typhi
Humans (ONLY salmonella that is only humans)
Fecal- oral
Typhoid Fever
Pathogenesis?
Peyer's Patches, spread in lymphatic system, to blood to spleen, bone marrow, liver
MULT in gall bladder/
Typhoid Fever
Can lead to?
Myocarditis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, hepatic and bone damage, meningitis
Typhoid Fever
Diagnosis of S. Typhi?
Treatment?
Selective Media
Ciprofloxacin
Campylobacteriosis
Agent?
Important?
Campylobacter jejuni
-, s shaped, microaerophilic
Most common cause of diarrhea
LOW infectious dose
Campylobacteriosis
Associated?
Guillain-Barre syndrome
Bacillus cereus
Agent characteristics?
+, rod, spore, faculatively anaerobic, 4.5-9.3, 5-50C optimal 35-40)
10^6 infectious dose
Effective due to enterotoxin
Bacillus cereus
Pathogenicity?
Opportunistic
Bacteremia, endocarditis, meningitis, pneumonia
Clostridium perfringens
Agent Characteristics?
Mode of Action?
Spore former,
rare form = Toxin, necrotizing disease
Viral Infections of Lower Alimentary System
Common Agents?
Rotavirus, Norwalk Virus, Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G
Rotavirus gastroenteritis
Agent Characteristics?
Vaccine?
Reovirus family
MAIN diarrheal cause in infants and children
Traveler's diarrhea (assoc)
Vaccine = YES (attenuated)
Norwalk Virus Gastroenteritis
Agent Characteristics?
Calcivirus Family
Half of all cases of viral gastroenteritis
Vaccine = NO
Hepatitis A
Characteristics?
Picornavirus
Liver (replication)
Fecal Contamination
Vaccine = YES
Shellfish, fecal-oral
Hepatitis B
Characteristics?
Vaccine?
Any Unique?
Hepadnavirus
Asym carriers
Blood, semen, mother-child
Cirrhosis
Vaccine= YES
UNIQUE= Reverse transcriptase
HBsAg (surfaceantigen)
Hepatitis C
Characteristics?
Flavivirus
Most = asymp
Chronic infection Liver
Hepatitis A B C
Differences?
A = NON enveloped F-O
B/C = enveloped, blood, semen
B= DNA
A/B =