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50 Cards in this Set

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embryonic gut region of celiac artery? structures supplied?
foregut - stomach to proximal duodenum; liver, gallbladder, pancreas
embryonic gut region of SMA? structures supplied?
midgut - distal duodenum to proximal 2/3 of transverse colon
embryonic gut region of IMA? structures supplied?
hindgut - distal 1/3 of transverse colon to upper portion of rectum
stomach reveives main blood supply from what?
branches of celiac trunk
nerve that provides the parasympathetic preganglionic innervation to the internal anal sphincter and carries the sensory afferent information from the rectum to the spinal cord?
pelvic nerve
nerve that carries the somatic efferent input to the external anal sphincter?
pudendal nerve
near complete abscence of muscle tone and peristalsis in esophagus is charcteristic of what disease?
scleroderma
anemia and atrophic glossitis are associated with what?
esophageal webs in Plummer-Vinson syndrome
hourglass shaped stomach within thoracic cavity?
sliding hiatal hernia
masssively dilated esophagus/megaesophagus?
Chagas' disease
2/3 of primary sclerosing cholangitis patients have a history of what?
ulcerative colitis
moderately dilated intrahepatic bile ducts and stricture in the bile duct at the porta hepatis?
primary sclerosing cholangitis
agents most commonly used to treat traveler's diarrhea?
fluoroquinolones - e.g. ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin; TMP/SMX in kids
inferior rectal nerve is a direct branch of what nerve?
pudendal
branches of second, third, and fourth sacral nerves that carry preganglionic parasympathetic nerves to several pelvic organs
pelvic splanchnic nerves
nerve that is a branch of the sacral plexus that exits through the greater sciatic foramen and innervates the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fascia latae muscles
superior gluteal nerve
inflammatory bowel disease causing fistula?
Crohn's
narcotic of choice for treatment of acute cholecystitis?
meperidine
in acute cholecysitis, where does a biliary stone become lodged?
cystic duct
artery that supplies the proximal lesser curvature?
left gastric artery
artery that supplies the proximal greater curvature below the splenic artery?
left gastroepiploic artery
artery that supplies the distal greater curvature
right gastroepiloic artery
artery that suplies the proximal greater curvature above the splenic artery?
short gastric artery
artery that supplies the distal lesser curvature?
right gastric artery
severe, acute RUQ pain; bloody diarrhea, liver lesions?
entamoeba histolytica
in what region of the liver is the P450 system located?
pericentral vein zone - most sensitive to injury
potential complication of ruptured pancreatic pseudocyst?
intestinal hemorrhage - contains pancreatic juices and lysed blood
important cause of mini-epidemics of pediatric diarrhea?
Yersinia enterocolitica
esophageal varices occur at what portal-systemic anastamosis?
left gastric - azygous
external hemorrhoids occur at what portal-systemic anastamosis?
superior - inferior rectal veins
caput medusae occurs at what portal-systemic anastamosis?
paraumbilical - inferior epigastric
name the layers of the gut wall from inside to outside
mucosa
submucosa
muscularis externa
serosa/adventitia
what does the mucosa of the gut wall contain?
epithelium (absorption)
lamina propria (support)
muscularis mucosa (mucosal motility)
what does the submucosa contain/do?
submucosal nerve plexus (Meissner's); controls Secretions, blood flow, and absorption
what does the muscularis externa contain/do?
outer longitudinal layer, inner circular layer, Myenteric nerve plexus (Auerbach's) controls Motility
where is Auerbach's plexus located?
between inner and outer layers (longitudinal and circular) of smooth muscle in GI tract wall (also called Myenteric plexus)
where is Meissner's plexus located?
between mucosa and inner layer of smooth muscle in GI tract wall
(also called submucosal plexus)
hypertrophy of Brunner's glands is seen when?
in peptic ulcer disease
these secrete alkaline mucus to neutralize acid contents entering the duodenum from the stomach
Brunner's glands
what cells take up antigen in Peyer's patch?
M cells - then stimulated cells leave and travel through lymph and blood to lamina propria of intestine, where they differentiate into IgA-secreting plasma cells
where are Peyer's patches found?
lammina propria and submucosa of SI
what is formed where the hindgut meets ectoderm?
pectinate line
what type of cancer is found above the pectinate line?
adenocarcinoma (A above)
what type of cancer is found below the pectinate line?
squamous cell carcinoma
what is the arterial supply above the pectinate line?
superior rectal artery (branch of IMA)
venous drainage above pectinate line?
superior rectal vein - inferior mesenteric vein - portal system
venous drainage below pectinate line?
inferior rectal vein - internal pudendal vein - inernal iliac vein - IVC
what type of hemorrhoids receive somatic innervation?
external - therefore painful
this type of herna protrudes below and laeral to the pubic tubercle
femoral hernia
what does the femoral sheath contain?
fascial tybe extending 3-4 cm below inguinal ligament - contains femoral artery, femoral vein, and femoral canal (containing deep inguinal lymph nodes)