Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/61

Click to flip

61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is normal tidal volume?
500ml

7-9 ml/kg.
What is normal expiratory reserve volume?
1200ml
What is normal residual volume?
1200ml
What is normal inspiratory reserve volume?
3100ml
What is normal functional residual capacity?
2400ml

ERV & Rv
What is normal inspiratory capacity?
3600ml

IRV & Tv
What is normal vital capacity?
4800ml

IRV, Tv, ERV
What is normal total lung capacity?
6000ml
Minute ventilation calc.
Ve = TV x RR
Normal PaO2?
80-100mm Hg
Normal SaO2?
95-100%
Effect of increased pH, CO2, temp. 2.3 DPG on ODC
Shift to left
Effect of decreased pH, CO2, temp. 2.3 DPG on ODC
Shift to right
Causes of impaired ventilation?
Reactive airway disease
Inspiratory muscle weakness
Causes of impaired perfusion?
Decreased hgb
Decreased CO
Decreased SaO2 (hypoxic vasoconstriction)
Vasoconstriction
Causes of decreased gas exchange
Dec. surface area
Increase diffusion distance
Dec. pressure gradient
What does dynamic compliance measure?
Measures compliance and also resistance to gas flow. Measured while gases are moving.
What does static compliance measure?
Truest measure of elasticity of lung tissue. Measured during inspiratory hold
What are the three primary components of oxygenation?
Intake, delivery, utilization
What is ventilation?
The movement of air
What is diffusion?
Transfer of oxygen into blood and CO2 out of blood
What is perfusion?
Blood flow
Define Work of Breathing
Work that muscles must perform to overcome compliance or resistance
What is normal work of breathing?
< 5% BMR
Normal value for static compliance?
70-100 ml/cm H2O
Normal value for dynamic compliance?
50-80 ml/cm H2O
What does decreased dynamic compliance indicate?
Reduced lung compliance or increased airway resistance
What diseases/conditions decrease total lung compliance?
ARDS
Pneumonia
Pleural Effusion
Flail Chest
Compliance vs resistance measure
PIP - Pstat

Normal difference is 10
>10=resistance problem
<10=compliance problem
Shunt
Perfusion in excess of ventilation
Dead Space
Ventilation in excess of perfusion
Causes of increased CO2
Increased metabolism
Hypoventilation
Increased dead space ventilation (PE)
Capnometry
Numerical measurement of CO2 level
Capnography
Graphic display of CO2 level
Normal etCO2
33-43 mmHg
Causes of increased etCO2
Anything that increases metabolism
Increased perfusion
Improved ventilation
Causes of decreased etCO2
Decreased metabolism
Decreased ventilation
PE
Bronchospasm
Factors that affect gas diffusion
Pressure gradient
Surface area for diffusion
Membrane thickness
Size of molecule
Use of PaO2/FiO2
Identify diffusion defect
Track changes in defect
Assess effectiveness of intervention
Drawback of PaO2
Only respresents 3% of total oxygen content
Normal PaO2/PAO2
>.75

1.0 is perfect
The lower the value the worse the defect
Normal A/a gradient
(PAO2-PaO2)
0-20 mmHg the larger the number the greater the defect
Normal PaO2/FiO2
550

<300=ALI 15% shunt
<200=ARDS 20% shunt
100=30% shunt
What does PaO2/FiO2 look at?
Looks at Qs/Qt

Shunted blood/Total Blood flow
What is the "gold standard" for shunt measurement?
Qs/Qt
Examples of an anatomic shunt
Capillary Collapse
Vetricular Septal Defect
Examples of Physiological Shunt
Alveolar Collapse
Atelectasis
Normal Qs/Qt value
5-10% normal
10-20 mild
20-30 moderate, requires intervention
30+ Severe, requires aggressive therapy
Limitation of PAO2-PaO2?
Only used on patients with shunt >15% and on FiO2 >50%
Normal V/Q ratio?
.8

Perfect is 1.0
What is the significance of high V/Q mismatch?
Increased dead space, ventilation exceeds perfusion
What is the significance of low V/Q mismatch?
Increased shunt, Perfusion exceeds ventilation
Bedside measure of shunt?
PaO2/FiO2
What are the oxygenation factors limitations?

Advantages?
Can only be used on vented patients

Takes into account MV parameters
Gold standard for PE diagnosis
Pulmonary Angiogram

Need PA catheter
Drawback to V/Q scan?
Highly sensitive, but not specific
Oxygen Hemoglobin Dissociating Curve is most affected by what 4 factors?
pH
PaCO2
Temperature
2,3 DPG
What parameters assess Diffusion?
A-a Gradient
a/A ratio
PaO2/FiO2
Oxygenation Factor
What parameters assess Perfusion?
Hgb
O2 affinity via ODC
Blood flow
What parameters assess Ventilation & Perfusion?
Qs/Qt (NOT VQI!!!!)
A-a Gradient
a/A ratio
PaO2/FiO2
Oxygenation Factor
What parameters assess Ventilation?
Auscultation
WOB
Airway pressures
Dynamic Compliance
Static Compliance
Airway resistance
PaCO2
etCO2
PaCO2-etCO2