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7 Cards in this Set

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Procedure 1
Washoe was a Pan Satyrus (Chimpanzee). She was about 8-14 months old at the beginning of the study. She had previously worked in the Air Force before being adopted by the Gardners’ for their research.
Procedure 2
ASL or American Sign Language is the main sign language used in the USA and parts of Canada and Mexico. In ASL, there are signs for each letter of the alphabet and each digit, and also signs for individual words. ASL also includes signs for abstract words where the signs are arbitrary rather than image-based.
Procedure 3
The fact that ASL contains both iconic and arbitrary signs is important as this is one of the key features of language, as defined by Hockett.
Procedure 4 (Teaching methods card 1)
The different teaching methods were:
 Imitation of signs – Washoe imitate a specified sign for a reward.
 Prompting imitation – If Washoe lapsed into poor ‘diction’ she would be shown the correct sign and would imitate this.
 Using signs during games and everyday routines so language was acquired naturally.
 Babbling was encouraged by repeating the babble back, and linking it to actual signs in the same way that a human parent might say ‘mummy’ when the infant babbles ‘mamama’.
Procedure 5 (Teaching methods card 2)
Instrumental (operant) conditioning – Using rewards to increase the likelihood that a behaviour would be repeated. Tickling was the most effective reward to use with Washoe.
 Shaping – Washoe would be initially rewarded for producing a sign that was similar to the actual sign, but gradually she would only be rewarded for closer and closer approximations.
 Direct tuition – A tutor would form her hands into the right gestures, and then she would repeat this, a much quicker method of acquiring new words.
Procedure 6
Instrumental conditioning is also known as operant conditioning. This is where new behaviours are learned through reinforcement. At any time, an organism operates on the environment, resulting in positive consequences (rewards or reinforcement) or negative consequences (punishments).
Procedure 7
They might be rewarded by getting additional attention from their parent/guardian.