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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define pathology
literal: study of suffering.
the study of structural and functional changes in cell, tissues and organs that underlie disease
list techniques used in pathology
1. frozen sections (quick test used in OR during surgery)
2. histochemistry
3. electron microscopy
4. histopathology
5. immunohistochemistry
list out laboratory medicine used by pathologists
1. hematology
2. microbiology
3. medical microbiology
4. immunopathology
5. blood bank/transfusion medicine
6. clinical chemistry
7. toxicologic pathology
8. hematopathology
what can be used for molecular diagnosis
1. southern & western blots
2. PCR
3. FISH
4. DNA sequencing
5. in situ hybridization
6. RFLP
differentiat dystrophic vs. metastatic calcification
1. Dystrophic calcification is deposition of calcium salts in nonviable or dying tissues, which results in mineralization of tissue. This occurs as a reaction to tissue damage, including as a consequence of medical device implantation. trying to heal damaged/infected tissue.
2. MC - deposition of calcium in normal tissues due to hypercalcemia. primarily affects the interstitial tissues of the blood vessels, kidneys, lungs, and gastric mucosa (has a gritty appearance)
define: anthracosis
lung disease caused by inhaling coal dust. presence of inert carbon in macrophages
define: karyorrhexis
Rupture of the nucleus, releasing disintegrated chromatin.
define: hemochromatosis
iron overload in parenchymal cells, tissue damage occurs. (treat by bleeding them frequently to lower iron, and then will force to suck iron out of liver). H&E shows brown pigment in hepatocytes. Prussian blue will see blue iron buildup in biliary portal areas.
define: hemosiderin
A yellowish brown granular pigment formed by breakdown of hemoglobin, found in phagocytes and in tissues especially in disturbances of iron metabolism (as in hemochromatosis, hemosiderosis, or some anemias).
define: hemosiderosis
iron overload in RE cells, no tissue damage.
define: hyaline
Glassy or transparent. Particularly the substance which covers the ends of bone at a joint.
define: lipofuscin
the brown waste material deposited in skin and nerve cells that is commonly called "age spots." Lipofuscin is made of free radical damaged proteins and fats.
define: lysosome
A sac-like compartment inside a cell that has enzymes that can break down cellular components that need to be destroyed.
define: pyknosis
Pyknosis, or karyopyknosis, is the condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a cell undergoing programmed cell death
define: suppuration
The formation and/or discharge of pus
list causes of metastatic calcification
1. hyperparathyroidism
2. destruction of bone (bone tumors) -cancer metastases
3. inc Vit D or Sarcoidosis
4. renal failure
(anything that leads to hypercalcemia can cause MC)
define: tuberculosis
An infectious disease of the lung that is caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is transmitted by the airborne spread of droplets containing tubercle bacilli.