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34 Cards in this Set

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Process of fertilization
1. Fusion of nucleus sperm and ovum

- Both sperm and ovum travel in female reproduction tract

- Physiological changes to both sperm and ovum before fertilization
Semen release
Epididymis, vasa differentia (storage and transport).
During ejaculation: sex accessory dutchs secrete seminal flasma -> semen

200 million sperm produced each day
Stages semen release
1. Before orgasm small amount
2. During orgasm (majority of semen)
3. another small amount by seminal vesicle exuded
Content of seminal plasma
1. Prostaglandin
2. Citric Acid + ascorbic acid
3. bicarbonates (buffer)
4. Fructose
5. Carnitine
6. Glycerylphosphocholine
7. Zinc
8. ATP
Function of prostaglandin
Contributes to sperm motility in vasa deferentia by contracting SM.
(mainly secreted by seminal vescicles)
Function of Fructose
Nutrient
Why is there a buffer present in fluid
To neutralize acidity in male urethra and vagina
Sperm number
40-500 million (average 180 million)
Percentage sperm abnormal
30%
Decrease in sperm count per year
1% for past 50 years
Average texture and volume
Texture: creamy, gray to yellow.

Volume: 2.5-3.5 ml
Male fertility index
Minimum qualifications of male fertility
- >20 million sperm/ml
- >40% able to swim
- >60% normal shape and size
Name structures and characteristics of sperm cell
Sperm head (Haploid DNA in membrane. Acrosome around it that contains digestive enzymes)
Neck
Flagellum (midpiece with mitochondria and tail. 9-2 microtubules arrangement)
Sperm in female reproductive tract
Vagina, cervix, uterus, urotubal junction, oviduct isthmus, amillary-isthmus junction.
Common location of fertilization
Ampillary-istmus junction
Sperm count in female
100-1000 reach oviduct

20-200 reach egg
Vaginal sperm
- Semen raises pH to 7.2 -> aids motility.

- 1 min: semen coagulates (prevents sperm loss)

- 20 min. sperm liquefies (aids motility and faster swimming towards cervix)
How does female orgasm aid?
Vaginal wall contractions -> pressure vagina > pressure cervix
Cervical sperm
- Cervical canal: folds and crypts + blocked by sticky mass

- Around ovulation: estrogen > -> mucus more watery + gaps between cervical fibers wider and form channels

- Fibration of cervical fibers in healthy sperm tail rythm: aids selection and propellation.
Uterine sperm
- watery, but sparse mucous
- sperm climb way up
- uterine muscle contractions and cilia beating aids
How does oxytocin gets released and aids in uterus?
Penis movement induces oxytocin release.
Oxytocin stimulates uterine SM contractions
Do sperm no to which oviduct to go?
No.
Sperm in oviduct
- 'wait' till ovulation (< tail beating)

- Ovulation: swim up to am-is junction.
How does est/pro help?
- est: increase cillia number

- pro: increases cillia beating and ovum transport
All cillia same direction?
No:
- recesses: towards ovary (sperm travells here)
- ridges beat toward the uterus (ova)
What is sperm capacitation?
During journey through female reproductive tract, the sperm matures and gains ability to fertilize eggs and increases tail movements of sperm.
What is the cumulus oophorus?
Sphere of loosely packed follicle cells
Process of fertilization?
1. Penetration of cumulus oophorus by sperm.
2. Zona pellucida
3. attachment to egg plasma membrane (ZP3/ZP2)
4. Cortical reaction
5. Completion of second meiotic division of ovum DNA
6. Formation/fusion of sperm and egg pronuclei
What is the zona pellucida composed of?
ECM with 3 glycoproteins: ZP1, ZP2, ZP3.
Step 2 of fertilization: zona pellucida..
- Receptors sperm membrane attach to ZP3.

- Acrosomal reaction -> influx of Ca2+ -> rise in pH + cAMP -> exocytosis acrosomal vesicle

3. degradation of zona.
How does the sperm cell maintain contact with ovum after release vescicles?
Inner sperm membrane exposed: ZP2 receptor
How egg prevents further fertilization?
Ca2+ influx triggers cortical granule release (and completion of 2nd meiosis) -> delibrate ZP2/3
Processes in egg activation?
- Cortical reaction
- Completion of meiosis
- Increase in egg metabolism
- Synthesis of protein, RNA, and DNA
Steps of fusion haploid DNA
1. Upon entry sperm in ovum: nuclear membrane brak down -> DNA condenses + new membrane formed.

2. both pronuclei approach each other + their membranes break down

3. Syngamy

4. Diploid zygote -> mitosis -> blastomeres