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45 Cards in this Set

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tarsals - how many, where
The seven bones in the hindfoot and midfoot are called tarsals
metatarsals - how many, where
In the forefoot, the five bones immediately anterior to the tarsals of the midfoot are called the metatarsals
Proceeding from the most medial to the most lateral of these four tarsals, they are called the
medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, lateral cuneiform, and cuboid. The fifth tarsal of the midfoot, the navicular, articulates anteriorly with the three cuneiforms and laterally with the cuboid.
medial longitudinal arch - composed of what 9 bones
o The medial longitudinal arch is the bony arch on the medial side of the foot formed by the calcaneus, talus, navicular, the cuneiforms, and the three most medial metatarsals.
lateral longitudinal arch - formed by what 4
o The lateral longitudinal arch is the bony arch on the lateral side of the foot formed by the calcaneus, cuboid, and the two most lateral metatarsals. The calcaneus thus forms the posterior end of not only the medial longitudinal arch but also the lateral longitudinal arch.
Tranverse Arch - consists of what 9 bones
o The medial longitudinal arch is higher than the lateral longitudinal arch. The difference in height between the medial and lateral longitudinal arches forms a transverse arch, consisting of the cuboid, the cuneiforms, and the bases of the metatarsals.
what is a keystone and what are the keystones for the medial arch (1) and for the lateral arch (2)
The structural component of particular importance to the medial and lateral longitudinal arches is the emplacement in each arch of a keystone; a keystone is a wedge-shaped bone at the crown of the arch that locks the other bones in place.
The talus is the keystone for the medial arch, and the cuboid is the keystone for the lateral arch.
plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (what 2 bones does it serve as a tie beam for?) and spring ligament
The plantar calcaneonavicular ligament is the principal plantar ligament to support the medial longitudinal arch. The ligament serves as a tie beam between the calcaneus and navicular.
Although the ligament provides some resiliency to the medial longitudinal arch, the resiliency is not great enough to justify the common reference to the ligament as the foot’s spring ligament.
2 principal plantar ligaments to support the lateral longitudinal arch
The long and short plantar ligaments are the principal plantar ligaments to support the lateral longitudinal arch.
plantar calcaneocuboid ligament - other name, extends from
The short plantar ligament is alternatively named the plantar calcaneocuboid ligament.
The short plantar ligament extends from the calcaneus to the cuboid.
The long plantar ligament, which lies inferior to the short plantar ligament, serves as a tie beam between the
the calcaneus posteriorly and the cuboid and the bases of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th metatarsals anteriorly.
plantar aponeurosis - what does it support
• The plantar aponeurosis is a tough, inelastic, layer of deep fascia that extends through the sole of the foot from the calcaneus to the toes. It supports both the medial and lateral longitudinal arches.
The lower end of the tibia contributes a horizontal articular surface to the ankle joint called the
tibial plafond
medial malleolus
o The stout process called the medial malleolus that projects inferiorly from the medial side of the distal end of the TIBIA contributes an articular surface on the medial side of the ankle joint.
lateral malleolus
o The blunt process called the lateral malleolus that projects inferiorly from the lateral side of the distal end of the FIBULA contributes an articular surface on the lateral side of the ankle joint.
o The uppermost part of the talus contributes a curved surface to the ankle joint called the
trochlea
tenon-and-mortise configuration
• The ankle joint may be said to have a tenon-and-mortise configuration. The terms tenon and mortise are commonly used to describe woodwork joints in which a projection called a tenon of one piece of wood fits into the groove or slot (the mortise) of another piece of wood. In the ankle joint, the trochlea of the talus forms the tenon, and the tibial plafond, in combination with the articular surfaces of the medial and lateral malleoli, form the groove-like mortise. (MORTISE ON TOP, TENON ON BOTTOM)
deltoid ligament
• The fibrous capsule of the ankle joint is strengthened on its medial side by a taut ligament named the deltoid ligament
sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus
The sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus is a process that projects medially like a ledge from the anterosuperior part of the calcaneus’s medial surface.
avulsion of the medial malleolus
• If a person missteps in such a way that the medial side of the ankle joint is severely stretched, the medial malleolus may fracture near its attachment to the deltoid ligament or the deltoid ligament may tear. A fracture of the medial malleolus near its attachment to the deltoid ligament is called an avulsion of the medial malleolus.
Under conditions in which the deltoid ligament is severely stretched, it is more common that the medial malleolus fractures than the deltoid ligament tears. This is because the deltoid ligament can bear greater stretching forces than the medial malleolus.
• Three ligaments strengthen the lateral side of the ankle joint and how they are named
1) the anterior talofibular ligament
2) calcaneofibular ligament
3) posterior talofibular ligament
Each of these ligaments is named for its proximal and distal attachments.
• Of these three ligaments, which ligament is the ligament most commonly torn accidentally and how
• Of these three ligaments, the anterior talofibular ligament is the ligament most commonly torn accidentally.
A common mechanism of injury is the sudden application of a marked inversion force on a plantarflexed foot
• Three synovial joints (name them and common function) join together the four most proximal tarsals of the foot (name them)
4 most proximal tarsals of the foot are the talus, calcaneus, navicular, and cuboid
These three joints, which are called the calcaneocuboid, anatomic subtalar, and talocalcaneonavicular joints, are the joints primarily responsible for the foot movements called supination and pronation.
calcaneocuboid joint - what surfaces of what 2 bones articulate with each other
o In the calcaneocuboid joint, the anterior surface of the calcaneus articulates with the posterior surface of the cuboid.
Three articular surfaces in the hindfoot (name them) and the anatomic subtalar joint - articulations of each
o In the hindfoot, three articular surfaces on the undersurface of the talus face three complementary, hyaline cartilage-covered, articular surfaces on the upper surface of the calcaneus. These three articulations between the talus and calcaneus are called the anterior, middle, and posterior subtalar articulations.
The posterior subtalar articulation is the articulation between the talus and calcaneus in the anatomic subtalar joint.
talocalcaneonavicular joint - what 1 bone articulates with what 2 bones and ligament and how
-The talocalcaneonavicular joint is a synovial joint in which the talus articulates inferiorly with the calcaneus and anteriorly with the navicular
-The talus articulates with the calcaneus via the middle and anterior subtalar articulations
-In the talus’ articulation with the navicular, the ball-shaped HEAD OF THE TALUS articulates with the concave, posterior surface of the navicular.
-In the talocalcaneonavicular joint, the head of the talus also articulates inferiorly with the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament.
There are two interdependent motions that occur among these 3 joints during supination and pronation.
-One of the motions is a screwlike motion in which the talus and calcaneus twist about each other.
-The other motion is a motion in which the talus and calcaneus glide and rotate relative to the navicular and cuboid.
The screwlike motion between the talus and calcaneus involves what 3 articulations?
-The screwlike motion between the talus and calcaneus involves the posterior subtalar articulation between the two bones in the anatomic subtalar joint as well as the anterior and middle subtalar articulations between the two bones in the talocalcaneonavicular joint.
-Although the three subtalar articulations between the talus and calcaneus are distributed between two separate synovial joints, they work together from a functional point of view to produce the screwlike motion between the two bones during supination and pronation.
What is the Functional Subtalar Joint
It is for the previous card's fact that the three subtalar articulations between the talus and calcaneus are said to form a functional joint called the functional subtalar joint.
The motion in which the talus and calcaneus glide and rotate relative to the navicular and cuboid involves what 2 articulations?
-The motion in which the talus and calcaneus glide and rotate relative to the navicular and cuboid involves the articulation between the talus and navicular in the talocalcaneonavicular joint and the articulation between the calcaneus and cuboid in the calcaneocuboid joint.
-Although these two articulations are in separate synovial joints, they work together from a functional point of view to produce the gliding and rotating movements among the four bones during supination and pronation.
What is the Transverse Tarsal Joint?
-Because the two articulations on the previous card extend transversely across the foot at the border between the tarsals of the hindfoot and the tarsals of the midfoot, they are said to form a functional joint called the transverse tarsal joint.
• Supination of the foot is a complex movement consisting basically of what 2 movements
• Supination of the foot is a complex movement consisting basically of foot adduction and foot inversion.
Foot adduction is the movement in which the foot rotates internally relative to the leg.
Inversion of the foot is the movement by which the medial edge of the foot is raised and the lateral edge lowered so that the sole of the foot faces slightly medially.
• Pronation of the foot is a complex movement consisting basically of what 2 movements
• Pronation of the foot is a complex movement consisting basically of foot abduction and foot eversion.
Foot abduction is the movement in which the foot rotates externally relative to the leg.
Eversion of the foot is the movement by which the lateral edge of the foot is raised and the medial edge lowered so that the sole of the foot faces slightly laterally.
• Each metatarsophalangeal joint provides for (4 movements of what part of the foot)
• Each metatarsophalangeal joint provides for flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction of its toe’s proximal phalanx.
o Abduction and adduction at a metatarsophalangeal joint...
Where is the axial line?
o Abduction and adduction at a metatarsophalangeal joint are side-to-side movements of the toe’s proximal phalanx. The axial line through the 2nd toe is the reference axial line for the abduction and adduction of the toes.
Significance of 2nd toe movements
The 2nd toe is the only toe that can be both abducted and adducted in two directions. It can be abducted toward the big toe or abducted toward the 3rd toe. From either abducted position, the 2nd toe can be adducted back toward its anatomical position.
• The interphalangeal joints provide for what 2 movements of what part of the foot
flexion and extension of the more distal phalanx.
• When the heel of the foot strikes the surface below at the beginning of the stance period, the center of pressure in the foot lies at the
• When the heel of the foot strikes the surface below at the beginning of the stance period, the center of pressure in the foot lies at the posterior end of the lateral longitudinal arch; the center of pressure represents the central point in the foot at which upper body weight is acting.
. From heel strike to foot flat, the center of pressure moves
From heel strike to foot flat, the center of pressure moves anteriorly directly under the lateral longitudinal arch.
Significance of loading of upper body weight under the lateral aspect of the hindfoot during the initial contact and loading response phases of the stance period (what type of movements are produced as a result and what are the overall effects of these movements)
-Generates pronator stresses on the foot.
-The pronator stresses produce movements at the functional subtalar and transverse tarsal joints that render the talus, calcaneus, navicular, and cuboid relatively mobile and loosely packed at these joints.
-The overall effect of these movements is a slight flattening of the medial and lateral longitudinal arches and a slight stretching of the plantar ligaments that support them.
The foot’s bones and ligaments thus serve from heel strike to foot flat as a (1 each)
flexible twisted plate that absorbs some of the force of upper body weight through a slight untwisting of the plate and the concurrent stretching of the ligaments that serve as tie beams for the arches.
• From foot flat to heel rise (which are the beginning and end points of the midstance phase of the walking gait), the center of pressure in the foot moves
anteromedially from the lateral edge of the midfoot to a point between the bases of the 1st and 2nd metatarsals.
Significance of supinator stresses on the foot (what types of movements are produced and what do these movements do?)
-During the midstance phase, soleus and tibialis posterior (two of the posterior leg muscles) impose supinator stresses on the foot.
-These supinator stresses produce movements at the functional subtalar and transverse tarsal joints that render the talus, calcaneus, navicular, and cuboid relatively immobile and tightly packed at these joints.
-In effect, these movements elevate the arches and convert the foot’s twisted plate of bones and ligaments into a rigid lever extending from the calcaneus in the heel to the heads of the metatarsals in the ball of the foot.
• From heel rise to toe off (which is the period that encompasses the terminal stance and pre swing phases of the walking gait), the center of pressure moves
anteriorly to a point midway between the big and 2nd toes.
The foot’s twisted plate of bones and ligaments is pulled upward and forward around the ball of the foot. The extension of the toes at their metatarsophalangeal joints converts the heads of the metatarsals into a pulley under which what is tightened and what is the significance of this tightening?
the plantar aponeurosis is tightened.
The tightened plantar aponeurosis binds the bones of the foot into a more rigid configuration, and this greater rigidity enhances the stability of the foot.