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89 Cards in this Set

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THe contents of the thoracic cavity are the 2 ____ & the mediastinum, which contains ____, _____, ____, & ______
pleural cavities

heart, trachea, great vessels, desc. esophagus
The ______, ______, & ________ bind the thoracic cavity.
ribs, sternum, thoracic vertebrae & their discs
The TRUE ribs are __-__.

The 1st rib is atypical because ________________.
1-7;

it's shorter, broader, most sharply curved, has 2 grooves across superior surface 4 subclavian vessels.
The grooves on the superior part of the 1st rib are for _____. The grooves are separated by ______.
subclavian vessels

scalene tubercle
TYPICAL ribs are ribs __-___.
They have a head that is _____-shaped, and 2 facets that are separated by the ___. The facets are for ___.
3-9;
wedge-shaped, crest of the head;
vertebrae w/corresponding # & vertebrae above
Ribs __-__ are considered FALSE RIBS because ________.
8-10; they are attached to the cartilage of the rib just superior. therefore, thier conxn w/sternum is indirect
The manubrium is opposite thoracic vertebrae __-__.
3-4
The body of the sternum is opposite thoracic vertebrae __-__.
5-9
The zyphoid process is opposite thoracic vertebrae __.
10
The angle between the body of sterunm and the manubrium is called the ___________.
Sternal angle; angle of Louis
After a rib excision in an operation, the rib regenerates from _______.
The osteogenic layer of the preserved periosteum.
The ______ ribs are most commonly fractured, and the place of fracture usually occurs ___________.
Middle;
just anterior to its angle
Flail chest occurs because of ___________. It results in free movement of ___________ and ________ occurs during breathing
multiple rib fractures;
the anterior and/or lateral thoracic walls;
that part of the wall moves paradoxically (inward during inspiration, outward on expiration)
Most people have ____ ribs.
12
Those people who have supernumary ribs (1% of population) usually have one in the ____ region.
cervical---articulate w/C-7 vertebra.

may compress spinal nerves C8 & T1, as well as subclavian artery
The thoracic cage protects ____ (on right side) & ____ (on left side) of abdominal contents.
liver-right
spleen-left
The ____,______,_____,____, ___, _____ attach to the rib cage.
pec major, pec minor, latisimus dorsi, serratus anterior, scalene muscles
The superior thoracic aperture (Thoracic OUTLET)is bound by:

The A-P connection is ___cm, and the lateral width is ___.
T-1, ribs 1 & 2, superior border of manubrium.

6.2cm, 11 cm
The ______ nerves, the great vessels, the _______, & the _____ pass through the superior thoracic aperture.
vagus, esophagus, trachea
The inferior aperture (thoracic OUTLET)is bound by the ___, ____, & ____.
T-12, 11th & 12 ribs, coastal cartiledges (coastal margin), & zyphoid process
The coastal margin is formed by costal cartiledges of ribs __-___.
7-10
The tubercle on a typical rib is in between the head and body. It provides for ____ & _____.
articulation w/transverse process of thor. vertebrae;
costal transverse ligament (rough area of tubercle)
The costal groove of a rib contains ___,____,&______.
Intercostal VAN (vein, artery, & nerve)
Synovial joints in thoracic cavity:
_______, _____, ______, _____
clavicle & 1st rib;
articulation for costal cartilges; sternoclavicular, interchondral
Cartilaginious joints in thoracic cavity:
___, ____, ____, _____
1st rib & body of sternum;
zyphoid process & body of sternum (xiphisternal); manubriosternal
Inspiration is the creation of -_____ pressure, which allows air to rush in.
negative
THe diaphragm ______ (contracts or relaxes) when we inhale.
contracts, pushing down the abdominal contents below
The phrenic nerve descends along the _______ aspect of the pericardial sack.
lateral
The new drug on trial for those who severed C3 4 or 5 is good b/c of ______.
Prevents the scarring of tissue (which allows axons to regenerate if there's no scar tissue).
Ribs __-__ are considered FALSE ribs because the cartiledge doesn't fuse w/sternum, but rather the cartiledge of rib above.
8-10
There are ___ ribs and ___ intercostal spaces (where the muscles go).
12; 11
The _______________ muscles run anteriorly and inferiorly from rib above to attach to rib below. Their main job is to ____ the ribs.
EXTERNAL INTERCOSTAL;

elevate
The INTERNAL INTERCOSTALS ______ the ribs.
COMPRESS
THe intercostal vein, artery, and nerve run in a groove on the _____ aspect of the rib and run in between the ____ & _____.
inferior;

intercostal & innermost intercostal muscles
The intercostal nerve is a ____ ramus which extends laterally, completely anteriorly, and innervates _______.
primary;

thoracic wall
A rib DISLOCATION(_________ syndrome) is the displacement of a costal cartilage from________.
slipping rib or dislocation of sternocostal joint;;

sternum
A rib SEPARATION refers to dislocation of __________.
dislocation of a costochondral jxn b/tw rib and costal cartilage.
The scalene muscles aid in breathing by __________.
Fixing the 1st & 2nd ribs and enabling themuscles connecting the ribs below to be more effective in elevating the lower ribs during forced inspiration.
The innermost intercostal muscles are found at ________ of intercostal space.
latermost parts
The subcostal muscles vary greatly. They attach_____ and are not bound by _____.
from a superior rib inferiorly & cross 1 or 2 intercostal spaces;
ribs on either side
The lining of the intercostal muscles & subcostal muscles is the ________.
endothoracic fascia
The _________ lies anteriorly beneath sternum. It attaches between __ & ___ ribs/costal cartilage.
transverse thoracis muscle.
ribs/costal cartilage 2-6
COPD or emphysema ptx ____ to breathe better. THis position is commonly called _____ position.
Press hands on table to fix their pectoral girdle (scapula & clavicle);
tripod
The external intercostals ___ the ribs, as well as the _____ part of the internal intercostals.
elevate;
interchondral
Costoclavicular syndrome results from________. Its syndromes are pallor & coldness of skin & upper limb, & diminshed radial pulse.
compression of the 1st rib, particularly when the angle between the neck and shoulder is increased.
The anterior rami (ventral rami) of T1-T12 comprise the ___________.
intercostal nerves
THe intercostal nerves innervate ____________.
all the muscles of the thoracic wall
The intercostal nerves give off a _________ branch and a _____ branch.
lateral cutaneous
anterior cutaneous
The _____ intercostal arteries pass over the vertebral column before reaching the intercostal space & intercostal groove.
RIGHT
The thoracic aorta gives off right and left _____ along its length.
intercostal arteries
The ________ comes off of the subclavian. It used to be called the __________.
internal thoracic artery

internal mammary artery
THe internal thoracic artery courses POSTERIORLY to the sternum and changes its name to ___________.
musculophrenic artery.
THe __________ artery is commonly used in bypass surgeries, sewn to anastamose directly with cardiac arteries.
internal thoracic artery
The internal thoracic artery gives off 2 branches, ____ & _____. Where do these go?
medial-pecs, breast, cutaneous tissue
lateral- internalcostal space
THe congenital condition called _______________ is when blood can't pass through aorta (due to constriction), so to allow blood to be rerouted.
coarctation of the aorta

intercostal arteries become enlarged
The 2nd, 3rd, & 4th intercostal veins join and form the _________.
right superior intercostal vein.
The 5th and lower intercostal veins (on the RIGHT side) form the __________.
azygous vein
The ________ & ___________ veins dump into the SUPERIOR vena cava (on the right side).
azygous & right superior intercostal
The hemiazygous vein is formed by the ______, ______, & _____.
lower intercostal veins, segmantal veins off aorta, & renal vein
The hemiazygos vein crosses midline at ____ thoracic vertebra to join the ______.
8th;

azygos
At the ___, ___, & ____ level of thoracic vertebrae, the ACCESSORY HEMIAZYGOS is formed from the posterior intercostal veins.
5th, 6th, & 7th

(could possible be 4th, 5th, & 6th)
THe 2nd, 3rd, & 4th intercostal veins on the LEFT anastamose and form the __________. This drains into the ______.
superior intercostal vein;

brachiocephalic vein
The ____ is the lining of the thoracic cavity that surrounds the lungs.
pleura
The _____ pleura is the pleura that surrounds the lung itself.
VISCERAL (or PULMONARY)
The _____ pleura is the pleura that lines the cavity.
PARIETAL
Between the visceral and parietal pleura is potential space which contains ______.
serous fluid
The pleura provides a smooth space to allow for ________.
movement
THe ___________ pleura covers the diaphragm.
diaphragmatic
The ____ pleura covers the mediastinum.
mediastinatic
The ______ pleura borders the ribs.
costal pleura
THe ________ pleura is the superiormost portion of pleura.
cervical
The right and left COSTODIAPHRAGMATIC RECESSES are important because __________.
During normal breathing, lung doesn't expand down completely to fill entire space. So, THORACENTESIS can be done in this space.
A THORACENTESIS is done by putting a needle posteriorly and laterally into ___, __, & __ intercostal space & fluid is aspirated
6th, 7th, or 8th
In doing a thoracentisis, you should always go in right _____ the rib because _______.
ABOVE;

nerves are just inferior to ribs, so you will really hurt them
The apex of the lung extends ____________ (where?).
Above the 1st rib and clavicle on both sides.
In the apex one can develop ________ cell carcinoma of the lung.
squamous
A patient presenting with hyponatremia (low sodium) & hallucinations can indicate _________________.
OCCULT CANCER (small cancer that may give rise to clinically evident distant metastases before it is itself clinically detectible.
A small occult carcinoma of the lung can frequently result in ______________ (which is what?).
PARANEOPLASTIC LIMBIC ENCEPHALITIS;
limbic lobes in CNS are attacked(auto-immune), and limbic structures result in psychiatric presentation.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung can also result in _______________.
Horner's Syndrome-
miosis (constricted pupil)
partial ptosis
anhidrosis-loss of hemifacial sweating
Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung compresses the ___________, resulting in the symptoms.
cervical chain ganglia
The phrenic nerve innervates the ____ & ______.
diaphragm;
central part of diaphragmatic parietal pleura
THe intercostal nerves innervate the ______ & ______.
costal pleura;
lateral part of diaphragmatic pleura
The diaphragmatic parietal pleura is innervated by the _____ & ________.
phrenic nerve (medially) & intercostal nerves (laterally)
Symptoms/clinical signs of pleural effusion include: ___,____, & ______ (the latter found in patients with bilateral effusions)
absence of breath sounds;
serous fluid present (clear or serosanguineous);
malignant cells that diagnose which stage the cancer is in
A pneumothorix is basically ___________.
air in the lungs--causes lung to collapse
Pneumothoraxes are primarily ______ in nature.
Common when inserting catheter 4 central line--puncture space b/tw visceral & parietal pleura
iatrogenic (caused by M.D.);
A ___________ is an infection b/tw the parietal and visceral pleura
pleuracy.
A pleuracy is very painful because ________.
What can be done to make it better?
the lungs don't move smoothly as they expand;
put talcum powder in pleura, which allows lungs to expand & not collapse.
A hemothorax is ____________.
blood in lungs