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32 Cards in this Set

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S&S of hyponatremia
impaired sensation of taste, anorexia, muscle cramps, feeling of exhaustin, apprehension, feeling of impending doom and focal weaknesses, fingerprinting edema(fluid overload)
S&S of hypernatremia
marked thirst, elevated body temperature, swollen tongue, red, dry sticky mucous membranes, (severe hypernatremia) disorientation and irritability or hyperactivity when stimulated
S&S hypokalemia
may experience neuromuscular changes such as fatigue, muscle weakness, diminished deep tendon reflexes, and flaccid paralysis(late).
anorexia, nausea, vomiting, irritability(early), increased senitivity to digitalis, electrocardiographic changes adn death caused by cardiac arrest.
hypernatremia specific gravity results
greater than 1.015(except with diabetes insipidous)
hypokalemia ecg tracing
ST-segment depression, flattened T wave and the presence of a U wave.
hyperkalemia S&S
ecg changes, vague muscles weakness , flaccid paralysis, anxiety, nausea, cramping and diarrhea.
ecg tracing for hyperkalemia
progressive changes; tall T-waves; prolonged PR intervals;ST-segment depression; widened QRS; and loss of P wave.
S&S for hypcalcemia
neuromuscular symptoms-numbness of fingers, cramps in the muscles(especially the extremities), hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, and a postitve Troussea's sign and Chvosteks's sign
Positive Trousseau sign
carpal spasm after 3 minutes of a blood pressure cuff being inflated above systolic pressure.
Positive Chvostek's sign
occurs after tapping the facial nerve approx. 2cm from the earlobe. Unilateral twitching fo the facial mucscle occurs in hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia
hypocalcemia total serum results
less than 8.5
hypercalcemia S&S
muscle weakness, incoordination, lethargy, deep bone pain, flank pain, and pathologic fractures. Constipation, anorexia, nausea, vomiting,polyuria or polydipsia leading to uremia if not treated and renal colic caused by stone formation.
Patients taking digitalis must take calcium with extreme care because
it can precipitate severe dysrhythmias.
total serum for hypercalcemia
more 10.5
S&S of hypomagnesemia
one of the most underdiagnosed electrolyte deficiencies. hyperactive reflexes, coars tremors, muxcle cramps, positive chvosteks and trousseaus signs, seizures, parethesia of the feet and legs and painfully cold hands and feet. disorientation, dysrhytmias, tachcardia and increased potential for digitalis toxicity.
serum magnesium for hypomagnesemia
less than 1.5
serum calcium and serum potassium for hypomagnesemia
both decreased
S&S hypokalemia
may experience neuromuscular changes such as fatigue, muscle weakness, diminished deep tendon reflexes, and flaccid paralysis(late).
anorexia, nausea, vomiting, irritability(early), increased senitivity to digitalis, electrocardiographic changes adn death caused by cardiac arrest.
hypernatremia specific gravity results
greater than 1.015(except with diabetes insipidous)
hypokalemia ecg tracing
ST-segment depression, flattened T wave and the presence of a U wave.
hyperkalemia S&S
ecg changes, vague muscles weakness , flaccid paralysis, anxiety, nausea, cramping and diarrhea.
ecg tracing for hyperkalemia
progressive changes; tall T-waves; prolonged PR intervals;ST-segment depression; widened QRS; and loss of P wave.
S&S for hypcalcemia
neuromuscular symptoms-numbness of fingers, cramps in the muscles(especially the extremities), hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, and a postitve Troussea's sign and Chvosteks's sign
Positive Trousseau sign
carpal spasm after 3 minutes of a blood pressure cuff being inflated above systolic pressure.
Positive Chvostek's sign
occurs after tapping the facial nerve approx. 2cm from the earlobe. Unilateral twitching fo the facial mucscle occurs in hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia
hypocalcemia total serum results
less than 8.5
hypercalcemia S&S
muscle weakness, incoordination, lethargy, deep bone pain, flank pain, and pathologic fractures. Constipation, anorexia, nausea, vomiting,polyuria or polydipsia leading to uremia if not treated and renal colic caused by stone formation.
Patients taking digitalis must take calcium with extreme care because
it can precipitate severe dysrhythmias.
total serum for hypercalcemia
more 10.5
S&S of hypomagnesemia
one of the most underdiagnosed electrolyte deficiencies. hyperactive reflexes, coars tremors, muxcle cramps, positive chvosteks and trousseaus signs, seizures, parethesia of the feet and legs and painfully cold hands and feet. disorientation, dysrhytmias, tachcardia and increased potential for digitalis toxicity.
serum magnesium for hypomagnesemia
less than 1.5
serum calcium and serum potassium for hypomagnesemia
both decreased