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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what 3 kinds of reactions does B12 catalyzze
intra molecular rearrangements, reductions of ribonucleotides, methyl group transfers
The hydroxylations of proline and lysine (in collagen) is dependent on what vitamin
Vitamin C
what vitamin is tethered to lysine
biotin
what vitamin is responsible for conversion pyruvate to oxaloacetate
biotin
When you see a carboxylation that requires ATP- what vitamin responsible
biotin
___ acid is like biotin but carries acyl groups.
Lipoic acid
What vitamin is a 1-C donor and its active form is THF
folic acid
what helps mobilize and tranport vitamin A
Retinol-binding proetins
what vitamin is necessary for proper Ca metabolism
vitamin D
what law of thermodynamics states that total energy of universe is constant
1st
what law of thermodynamics states that entropy approaches zero as temperature approaches 0K
3rd law
what is the formula for Gibbs free energy
deltaG= D(H)- T(S)
what type of curve do allosteric enzymes follow
sigmoid
what does hexokinase (glucokinase) do?
Opens up grlucose chain so that glucose cannot escape from cell.
where is glucokinase found
liver
what does glucose -6 -Palloste allosterically inhibits
hexokinase
where are the two priming reactions of glycolysis
1. conversion glucose to glucose-6-P by hexokinase
2. Conversion of fruct-6-P to fruct-1,6, Bisphosphate by PFK
what enzyme converts 6C sugar to 3C
aldose
What do glcerophosphate and malate- aspartate do
They shuttle electrons across mitochondrial membrane when NADH dosn't cross
where does 90% glucogenesis occur in
liver/ kidneys
What does pyruvate carboxylase do
take you from pyruvate to oxalloacetate in gluconeogensis
what is avidin do
binds tightly to biotin.
T or F oxaloacetate has to be converted to ___ to cross mitochondrial membrane in gluconeogensis
malate
How is extra NAD+ produced in the muscle during anerobic exercise
By LDH (lactate dehrogenase) taking H prom NADH and putting it on pyruvate -> lactate. Therefore NADH -> NAD+
what effect would increasing blood levels of fructose 2,6 bisphosphate have?
increase blood levels of glucose
what does glucagon do?
It increases the production of glucose by increasing phosphorylation on fructose- 2,6 bisphosphatase (inactivates it). Therefore levels of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate decrease and production glucose increases,
what cannot be used as substrate to make glucose
Acetyl- CoA, fatty acids, Lysine/ Leu (all other AA's can)
what do you get when you try and break down fats to make glucose
Acetly- CoA - which can be used to make ATP but not sugar
In what tissue does pentose phosphate pathway take place
liver and adipose cells
where is pentose phosphate pathway regulated
at first step- conversion of G6P to 6Pgluconate. regulated by [NADP+]
What disease is assoc with low levels of Niacin and consequently NADPH
Pellegra
For reductive reactions would you want the concentration of NADH or NADPH to be higher
NADPH
what does a epimerase do
change configuration about particular C
what can ribose- 5 phosphate be used to produce
nucleic acids
what is an endiolate intermediate found
When you do epierase and isomerase in pentose phosphate Shunt (PPS)
what vitamin is essential coffator for transketolase rxn
thiamine (B1)
What vitamin deffeciency is linked to Beri-Beri
Thiamin (B1)
In PPP how is it you don't end up with large amounts of ribose-5-P
because can combine reactions of PPP and glycolysis to produce glycolytic intermediates
What does NADPH do to antioxidant glutathione in RBC's
keeps it in reduced form
Is the incorporation of selenocysteine in glutathione post translation or during translation
during translation= mesage in mRNA cuases codon UGA to code for Sellenium to be put in
if person has blood in urine, acute hemolytic anemia, what enzme in PPP is likely missing
first enzyme glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase
what would happen if you had to store glucose in cell instead of glycogen
1 take alot of energy to get glucose into cell against gradient
2. water would come into cell and lyse it
Are red or white muscles fast twitch (which contain few mitochondria and break glucose down to lactate
white
when do you use G-1-P
to make UDP glucose in the production of glycogen
what does UDP glucose
transfers glucose to the end of glycogens growing chain
what is the small dimer protein that glycogen sythensis starts on
glycogenin
Is the breakdown of glycogen a hydrolysis or phorphorylase
phosphorylase
what does mutase do in the the glycogen production pathway
it converts G1P to G6P
what enzyme breaks down glycogen
phosphorylsis
Is phosphorylase B or phosphorylase a usually active
Phosphorylase a
phosphorylase b- usu inactive
In phosphorylase b and b is the R or T state always active
The R state
what does phosphorylase kinase do
cuases phosphorylase b to change into phosphorylase a (active)
What happens when muscle phosphorylase b is in presence of high AMP
it switches from T to R state to breakdown more glycogen
what does phosphorylase kinase do?
It phosphorylates- phosphorylase a and b
What do glucagon and epinephrine trigger
the breakdown of glycogen
what activates protein kinase A (PKA)
cAMP
what does PKA activate
phosphorylase kinase
when glycogen synthase is phosphorylated it is active or inactive
inactive
What does protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) Do? It is activated by epinephrine
increases rate of glycogen synthesis / decreases rate of glycogen breakdown
what is the glucose sensor in the liver that reduces breakdown of glycogen when conc. of glucose high
phosphorylase a - inactive when glucose and PP1 bound to it
Does glucagon or epinephrine breakdown glucagon in muscle and liver
epinephrine
glucagon- only break down in liver
What is Von Gierke disease characterized by
enlarged abdomen, thin extremities, hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis. Caused by inability to turn glycogen to glucose