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103 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
anabolism
the sum total of all biosynthetic reactions in the cell
aseptic technique
the series of manipulations used to prevent contamination of sterile objects or microbial cultures during handling
ATP synthase (ATPase)
a multiprotein enzyme complex embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP coupled to dissipation of the proton motive force
Autotroph
an organism capable of biosynthesizing all cell material from CO2 as the sole carbon source
catabolism
biochemical reactions leading to the production of usable energy (usually ATP) by the cell
catalyst
a substance that accelerates a chemical reaction but is not consumed in the reaction
chemiosmosis
the process by which ATP synthesis is linked to dissipation of a proton motive force
citric acid cycle
a cyclical series of reactions resulting in the conversion of acetate to two CO2
coenzyme
a small nonprotein molecule that participates in a catalytic reaction as part of an enzyme
complex medium
a culture medium composed of digests of chemically undefined substances such as yeast and meat extracts
culture medium
an aqueous solution of various nutrients suitable for the growth of microorganisms
defined medium
a culture medium whose precise chemical composition is known
electron acceptor
a substance that can accept electrons from an electron donor, becoming reduced in the process
electron donor
a substance that can donate electrons to an electron acceptor, becoming oxidized in the process
endergonic
energy requiring
enzyme
a protein that can speed up (catalyze) a specific chemical reaction
exergonic
energy releasing
fermentation
anaerobic catabolism in which an organic compound serves as both an electron donor and an electron acceptor and ATP is produced by substrate=level phosphorylation
free energy (G)
energy available to do work; G^0' is free energy under standard conditions
glycolysis
a biochemical pathway in which glucose is fermented yielding ATP and various fermentation products; also called the Embden-Meyerhof pathway
oxidative phosphorylation
the production of ATP at the expense of a proton motive force formed by electron transport
photophosphorylation
the production of ATP from a proton motive force formed from light-driven electron transport
proton motive force
an energized state of a membrane resulting from the separation of charge and the elements of water (H versus OH-) across the membrane
pure culture
a culture that contains a single kind of microorganism
reduction potential (E0')
the inherent tendency, measured in volts, of a compound to donate electrons; E0' is the reduction potential under standard conditions
respiration
the process in which a compound is oxidized with O2 (or an O2 substitute) as the terminal electron acceptor, usually accompanied by ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation
siderophore
an iron chelator that can bind iron present at very low concentrations
substrate-level phosphorylation
production of ATP by the direct transfer of an energy-rich phosphate molecule from a phosphorylated organic compound to ADP
acidophile
an organism that grows best at low pH
aerobe
an organism that can use oxygen (O2) in respiration; some require oxygen for growth
aerotolerant anaerobe
a microorganism unable to respire oxygen (O2) but whose growth is unaffected by the presence of oxygen
alkaliphile
an organism that grows best at high pH
anaerobe
an organism that cannot use oxygen in respiration and whose growth may be inhibited by oxygen
autolysis
spontaneous cell lysis, usually due to the activity of lytic proteins called autolysins
batch culture
a closed-system microbial culture of fixed volume
binary fission
cell division following enlargement of a cell to twice its minimum size
cardinal temperatures
the minimum, maximum, and optimum growth temperatures for a given organism
divisome
a complex of proteins involved in cell division processes in prokaryotes
exponential growth
growth of a microorganism where the cell number doubles within a fixed time period
extreme halophile
a microorganism that requires very large amounts of salt (NaCl), usually greater than 10% and in some cases near to saturation, for growth
extremophile
an organism that grows optimally under one or more chemical or physical extremes, such as high or low temperature or pH
facultative
with respect to oxygen, an organism that can grow in either its presence or absence
FtsZ
a key cell division protein that forms a ring along the division plane to initiate cell elongation
generation time
the time required for a population of microbial cells to double
growth
an increase in cell number
halophile
a microorganism that requires NaCl for growth
halotolerant
an organism that does not require NaCl for growth but that can grow in the presence of salt, in some cases, substantial levels of salt
hyperthermophile
a microorganism that has a growth temperature optimum of 80 degrees C or greater
lag phase
a period preceding the exponential growth phase when cells may be metabolizing but are not yet growing
mesophile
an organism that grows best at temperatures between 20 and 45 degrees C
microaerophile
an aerobic organism that can grow only when oxygen tensions are reduced from that in air
pH
the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration of a solution
psychrophile
an organism with a growth temperature optimum of 15 degrees C or lower and a maximum growth temperature below 20 degrees C
psychrotolerant
an organism capable of growth at low temperatures but whose growth temperature optimum is above 20 degrees C
stationary phase
the period immediately following exponential growth when the growth rate of the population falls to zero
thermophile
an organism whose growth temperature optimum lies between 45 and 80 degrees C
transpeptidation
formation of peptide cross-links between muramic acid residues in peptidoglycan synthesis
viable
capable of reproducing
xerophile
an organism that is able to live, or that lives best, in very dry environments
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
an enzyme that catalyzes attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA
anticodon
a sequence of three bases in a tRNA molecule that base-pairs with a codon during protein synthesis
antiparallel
in reference to double-stranded DNA, one strand runs 5'->3' and the complementary strand 3'->5'
chromosome
a genetic element, usually circular in prokaryotes and linear in eukaryotes, carrying genes essential to cellular function
codon
a sequence of three bases in mRNA that encodes an amino acid
complementary
nucleic acid sequences that can base-pair with each other
DNA gyrase
an enzyme found in most prokaryotes that introduces negative supercoils in DNA
DNA polymerase
an enzyme that synthesizes a new strand of DNA in the 5'->3' direction using an antiparallel DNA strand as a template
gene
a segment of DNA specifying a protein (via mRNA), a tRNA, or an rRNA
genome
the total complement of genes contains in a cell or virus
hybridization
formation of a duplex nucleic acid with strands derived from different sources by complementary base pairing
messenger RNA (mRNA)
an RNA molecule that contains the genetic information to encode one or more polypeptides
operon
a cluster of genes whose expression is controlled by a single operator
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
a method for the amplification of a specific DNA sequence in vitro by repeated cycles of synthesis using specific primers and DNA polymerase
promoter
a site on DNA to which RNA polymerase binds to commence transcription
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
types of RNA found in the ribosome; some participate actively in the process of protein synthesis
ribosome
a cytoplasmic particle composed of ribosomal RNA and protein whose function is to synthesize proteins
RNA polymerase
an enzyme that synthesizes RNA in the 5'->3' direction using a complementary and antiparallel DNA strand as a template
semiconservative replication
DNA synthesis yielding new double helices, each consisting of one parental and one progeny strand
transcription
the synthesis of RNA using a DNA template
transfer RNA (tRNA)
an adaptor molecule used in translation that has specificity for both a particular amino acid and for one or more codons
antibiotic
chemical substance produced by a microorganism that kills or inhibits the growth of another microorganism
antimicrobial drug resistance
the acquired ability of a microorganism to grow in the presence of an antimicrobial drug to which the microorganism is usually susceptible
antimicrobial agent
a chemical compound that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms
antiseptic (germicide)
chemical agent that kills or inhibits growth of microorganisms and is sufficiently nontoxic to be applied to living tissues
autoclave
a sterilizer that destroys microorganisms with temperature and steam under pressure
B-lactam antibiotic
an antibiotic, including penicillin, that contains the four-membered heterocyclic B-lactam ring
bacteriocidal agent
an agent that kills bacteria
bacteriostatic agent
an agent that inhibits bacterial growth
broad-spectrum antibiotic
an antibiotic that acts on both gram-positive and gram-negative Bacteria
chemotherapeutic agent
an antimicrobial agent that can be used internally
decontamination
treatment that renders an object or inanimate surface safe to handle
disinfectant
an antimicrobial agent used only on inanimate objects
disinfection
the elimination of microorganisms from inanimate objects or surfaces
fungicidal agent
an agent that kills fungi
fungistatic agent
an agent that inhibits fungal growth
inhibition
the reduction of microbial growth because of a decrease in the number or organisms present or alterations in the microbial environment
lysis
loss of cellular integrity with release of cytoplasmic contents
MIC
minimum inhibitory concentration -- the minimum concentration of a substance necessary to prevent microbial growth
pasteurization
reduction of the microbial load in heat-sensitive liquids to kill disease-producing microorganisms and reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms
penicillin
a class of antibiotics that inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis, characterized by a B-lactam ring
sanitizer
agent that reduces, but may not eliminate, microbial numbers to a safe level
sterilant (sterilizer) (sporicide)
a chemical agent that destroys all forms of microbial life
sterilization
the killing or removal or all living organisms and their viruses from a growth medium