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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where do organisms designated producers obtain their energy from?
The Sun
What adjective best describes homeostasis in living organisms?
In what ways are all organisms alike?
1. Requirements for energy
2. Participation in one or more nutrient cycles
3. Ultimate dependence on the sun
4. Interaction with other forms of life.
What is a scientific principle?
A synthesis of several explanations of many observations.
What does the control in an experiment do?
Allows a standard of comparison for the experimental group.
Which atom represents the greatest weight in the human body?
What is the positive subatomic particle?
The Proton
What do hydrophobic tails do in a lipid bilayer?
Point inward and form a region that excludes water.
Why is cellular pH kept near a value of 7?
Because of buffers
What are fructose and glucose?
Six carbon sugars and monosaccharides.
What is the highest magnicifaction generally used to study cells provided by?
The transmission electron microscope.
What are golgi bodies?
The primary structures for the packaging of cellular secretions for export from the cell.
Are DNA molecules transported out of the nucleus through pores in the nuclear membrane?
What happens to energy that is stored in carbon compounds?
It is converted by mitochondria to a form usable by the cell.
What are microtubules used for?
To move the chromosomes
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
1. Although energy in the universe is constant, energy in a earthly system may accumulate
2. The amount of energy in the universe is constant
3. Chemical reactions do not create or destroy energy
4. Energy can change from one form to another
When will the rate of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane be the lowest?
When temperatures are low.
When does wilting of a plant occur?
When a plant with flexible cell walls is placed in a hypertonic solution.
What is a chemical equilibrium
It means that the rate of opposing reactions is equal.
Enzymes are...
1. Very specific
2. Act as catalysts
3. Organic molecules
4. Have special shapes that control their activities
What may chemosynthetic bacteria use as a hydrogen donor instead of water?
What is the carbon source for organisms that derive their energy from photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide
How does most carbon enter the web of life?
Through photosynthesis
Does chlorophyll reflect or absorb green light?
What is chemiosmotic theory?
The concept that concentration differences in H+ and electric gradients across a membrane are responsible for ATP formation.
What is ATP?
1. Can be produced by photosynthesis
2. Is produced in the degradation of organic compounds such as glucose
3. Is generated in anaerobic respiration
4. Is released in aerobic respiration
The amount of energy released from a glucose molecule is dependent on what?
What happens to hydrogen atoms
How many ATP molecules are produced per molecule of glucose degraded during glycolysis?
2 ATP molecules
Bacteria that form lactate produce what?
Sour cream and sour milk
Molecules associated with glycolysis and the Krebs cycle provide what?
1. Sources of energy for ATP formation
2. Intermediates in the formation of carbohydrates
3. Intermediates in the formation of lipids
4. Intermediates in the formation of proteins
What is the smallest component of an element that still has properties of the element?
The atom
How does the elemental composition of the universe, earth's crust, and the human body differ from each other?
In addition to being available, elements must also be suitable or have properties that are compativle with living processes.
are covalent bonds a weak force of interaction between two biological molecules?
What does the availability of water molecules to form intermolecular hydrogen bonds do?
1. Gives water a high specific heat
2. Causes water to have a high surface tension
3. Makes water a universal solvent for many polar molecules
The structure of proteins includes what?
1. The primary structure is the sequence of amino acids
2. Alpha helices and beta sheets are examples of secondary structure
3. Side chains (R groups) of amino acids can be hydrophilic or hydrophobic
4. Proteins made of two or more polypeptide chains have quaternary structure
What is the smallest unit of life that can exist as a separate entity?
The cell
What are the chemical processes in the living cell called?
What is homeostasis?
The ability to maintain a constant internal environment
What groupings do phylum include?
1. Order
2. Family
3. Genus
4. Species
How are observations in the scientific process made?
1. Directly
2. indirectly
3. May require special equipment
4. May be made with a microscope
What was the first cell seen under a microscope?
a cork cell
What states that all living organisms are made up of cells?
the cell theory
Do hydrophilic substances have an easier time passing through membranes than hydrophobic substances?
What microscope has the highest magnification
The transmission electron microscope
What is endoplasmic reticula?
Organelles composed of a system of canals, tubes, and sacs that transport molecules inside the cytoplasm.
what is the second law of thermodynamics?
Energy tends to become increasingly more disorganized.
what does simple diffusion involve?
1. The rate of movement of molecules is controlled by temperature and pressure.
2. the movement of individual molecules is random
3. the movement of molecules is independent of the movement of any other substance
4. the net movement is away from the region of highest concentration.
What happens when a single celled freshwater organixm, such as a protistan, is transferred t osalt water?
the cell shrinks
What does active transport include?
1. sodium-potassium pump
2. endocytosis
3. exocytosis
4. facilitated diffusion
how would you describe the matching of enzyme with substrate?
the concept of a key fitting into a lock
How do chemosynthetic bacteria (autotrophs) obtain energy?
from inorganic ions
Where does the oxygen released in photosynthesis come from?
What doe plants need to carry on photosynthesis?
water and carbon dioxide
the shorter the wavelength of light...?
...the more energy it has
what happens when light excites chlorophyll?
the chlorophyll olecule absorbs the energy and moves an electron to a higher energy state
What is the ultimate source of energy for living things?
the sun
what happens when molecules are broken apart in respiration?
the energy released in respiration is channeled into molecules of ATP
what is ATP?
the energy currency of the cell
what liberates the most energy in the form of ATP?
aerobic respiration
Where is the greatest number of ATP molecules produces?
In electron transport phosphorylation.