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149 Cards in this Set

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unable to produce or understand language
aphasia
motor type of aphasia; inability to name common objects or to express simple ideas in words or writing
expressive aphasia
inability to understand written or spoken language
receptive (sensory) aphasia
hearing
auditory
caused be excessive cerumen occluding the ear canal (with aging, cerumen thickens and builds up in the ear canal)
conductive hearing loss
false or pathologic belief
delusions
taste
gustatory
excessive sensitivity to tactile stimuli
hyperesthesia
a distortion of sensory perception; may be auditory, visual, or tactile
illusions
sense that enables a person to be aware of the position and movement of body parts without seeing them
kinesthetic
smell
olfactory
ear, nose, and throat specialist - may be good doctor to refer patients to if you suspect hearing loss
otolaryngologist
toxic to the ears, may permanently damage the auditory nerve
ototoxic
the ability to respond to stimuli originating from within the body regarding spatial position or movement
proprioceptive
most common visual error; defect in the ability of the lens of the eyes to focus light, such as occurs in nearsightedness or farsightedness
refractive error
smell
olfactory
ear, nose, and throat specialist - may be good doctor to refer patients to if you suspect hearing loss
otolaryngologist
toxic to the ears, may permanently damage the auditory nerve
ototoxic
the ability to respond to stimuli originating from within the body regarding spatial position or movement
proprioceptive
most common visual error; defect in the ability of the lens of the eyes to focus light, such as occurs in nearsightedness or farsightedness
refractive error
a deficit in the normal function of sensory reception and perception
sensory deficit
occurs when a person experiences an inadequate quality or quantity of stimulation, such as monotonous or meaningless stimuli
sensory deprivation
occurs when a person receives multiply sensory stimuli and cannot perceptually disregard or selectively ignore some stimuli
sensory overload
a sense that allows a person to recognize an object's size, shape, and texture
stereognosis
abnormal ocular condition in which the eyes are crossed; causes visual impairment
stabismus
touch
tactile
begins with stimulation of a nerve cell (ex light, touch, sound); this stimulation travels to the brain along nerve pathways and the spinal cord
reception
occurs in the brain (cerebral cortex) this is when the person becomes aware of the stimulus
perception
occurs when a stimulus travels down a motor nerve to a target organ
reaction
a gradual decline in the ability of the lens to accommodate or to focus on close objects; individual is unable to see near objects clearly
presbyopia
cloudy or opaque areas in part of the lens or the entire lens; problems with glare and blurred vision; develop gradually without pain
cataract
result when tear glands produce too few tears resulting in itching, burning, or even reduced vision
dry eyes
slowly progressive increase in intraocular pressure that causes progressive pressure against the optic nerves, resulting in peripheral visual loss, decreased visual acuity with difficulty adapting to darkness, and a halo effect around lights, if left untreated
glaucoma
pathological changes occur in the blood vessels of the retina, resulting in decreased vision or vision loss due to hemorrhage and macular edema
diabetic retinopathy
condition in which the macula (specialized portion of the retina responsible for central vision) loses its ability to function efficiently
macular degeneration
a common progressive hearing disorder in older adults; loss of hearing acuity
presbycusis
buildup of earwax in the external auditory canal; cerumen becomes hard and collects in the canal and causes a conduction deafness
cerumen accumulation
common condition in older adulthood, usually resulting from vestibular dysfunction
dizziness and disequilibrium
decrease in saliva production that leads to thicker mucus and a dry mouth
xerostomia
disorder of the peripheral nervous system, characterized by symptoms that include numbness and tingling of the affected area and stumbling gait (mostly legs and feet but may be upper extremities)
peripheral neuropathy
cerebrovascular accident caused by clot, hemorrhage, or emboli disrupting blood flow to the brain
stroke
Diet: complex carbs, lowfat, whole grain products, vegetables/fruits to promote normal bowel function
High-fiber diets
Diet: orange juice, apricots, cantaloupes, and bananas for clients with K losses
High-potassium
Diet: milk & dairy products; osteoporosis and kidney failure
High-Calcium
Diet: athletes, dietician or MD needs to prescribe
High-protein
Diet: Avoid fresh fruits, raw veggies, nuts, seeds, dried fruits, black pepper or any other foods that carry pseudomonas aeruginosa
Neutropenic
serum sodium normal level
136-145 mEq/L
serum potassium normal level
3.5.5.0 mEq/L
serum chloride normal level
98-106 mEq/L
serum calcium normal level
9-10.5 mg/dL
serum phosphate normal level
3.0-4.5 mg/dL
serum magnesium normal level
1.3-2.1 mEq/L
Increased magnesium
renal failure
Decreased magnesium
malnutrition/malabsorption, ETOH abuse, poor heart function, torsade de pointe
Increased phosphorous
hyperparathyroidism, renal failure
Decreased phosphorous
hyperthyroidism, diuretics, malabsorption/malnutrition, antacid abuse, tetany
Increased calcium
hyperparathyroidism, tumors, immobilization, thiazide diuretics, antacid abuse, renal calculi
Decreased calcium
hypoparathyroidism, chronic renal disease, pancreatitis, massive blood transfusion, malnutrition, tetany
Increased chloride
hypernatremia or decreased serum bicarbonate levels
Decreased chloride
loss of GI secretions, use of diuretics, COPD
Increased potassium
renal dysfunction, decreased steroid secretion, decreased ADH, K+ sparing diuretics, ACE inhibitors, metabolic acidosis
Decreased potassium
loss of GI secretions, decreased dietary K intake, K+ wasting diuretics, increased steroid secretion (Cushing's), corticosteriod drugs, tumors, alkalosis
Increased sodium
large increase in sodium w/o increase in water, loss of water without loss of salt, intracellular dehydration, N/V/D, decreased H2O intake, diabetes insipidus
Decreased sodium
excess of water in body SIADH, water intoxication, use of salt free IV fluids to replace GI losses, Addison's disease
Olfactory nerve function
smell
Optic nerve function
vision
Oculomotor nerve function
eye movement
Trochlear nerve function
eye movement
Trigeminal nerve function
Facial sensation
Abducens nerve function
eye movement
Facial nerve function
Facial movement
Auditory nerve function
hearing and balance
Glossophayngeal nerve function
organs and taste
Vagus nerve function
organs and taste
Accessory nerve function
shoulder shrug and head turn
Hypoglossal nerve function
tongue movement
all fluids within the cells of the body
intracellular fluid
blood plasma found in the vascular system
intravascular fluid
fluid separated from other fluids by a cellular barrier
transcellular fluid
Positive ions
Na+, K+, Ca+
the movement of a pure solvent, such as water, across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lesser solute (electroyle) to an area of greater solute concentration
Osmosis
a random movement of a solute through a semi-permeable membrane from higher to lower concentrations
diffusion
movement across a membrane, under pressure, from higher to lower pressure
filtration
movement of ions against osmotic pressure to an area of higher pressure
active transport
what is normal intake daily?
2200-2700 ml/day
where is ADH stored?
posterior pituitary
Renin acts to produce angiotensin I, which causes what?
vasoconstriction
Overall effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism:
sodium and water retention, leading to restoration of blood volume
what is the most abundant extracellular cation?
Sodium
what is the most abundant intracellular cation?
Potassium
what is the primary cause of hyperkalemia?
renal failure
what are the 3 main anions of body fluids?
Chloride, Bicarbonate, and Phosphate
substance or group of substances that can absorb or release H+ to correct acid/base imbalance
Buffer
Acid/base regulator: carbonic acid/base buffer system
Chemical
Acid/base regulator: absorption and release of H+ by the cell
biological
Acid/base regulator: lungs and kidneys
Physiological
How do we get out of balance?
V/D, NPO, can't take in fluids, etc
balance of fluid and electrolytes is maintained by what 2 body systems?
renal and pulmonary
elements or compounds that when dissolved or dissociated in water or other solvent separate into ions that are electrically charged
electrolytes
what are the 4 processes by which fluids and electrolytes shift from compartment to compartment?
1. Osmosis
2. Diffusion
3. Filtration
4. Active transport
T or F: Osmosis requires work.
False! Osmosis does not require work it naturally occurs!
drawing power of water and depends on the number of molecules in solution
Osmotic pressure
term that describes the concentration of solutions, reflects the number of molecules in a liter of solution, and is measured in milliosmoles per liter
Osmolarity
Pulls fluid from cells, causing them to shrink (ex. 3% sodium chloride)
Hypertonic solution
example of when you would give a hypertonic solution
increased ICP and pulmonary edema
expand the body's fluid volume without causing a fluid shift from one compartment to another
isotonic solution
moves fluid into the cells, causing them to enlarge (ex. 0.45% sodium chloride)
Hypotonic solution
example of when you would give a hypotonic solution
vomiting and diarrhea
what is the normal amount of fluid output daily?
1500-1600 ml urine daily
prevents diuresis, causes the body to save water
ADH
works on renal tubules and collecting ducts to save water and return it to systemic circulation
ADH
plays a critical role in the balance of fluid and electrolytes and the maintenance of vascular tone
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
a hormone secreted from atrial cells of the heart in response to atrial stretching and increase in circulating blood volume
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
acts as a diuretic that causes sodium loss and inhibits the thirst mechanism
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
what organs do you lose fluid from?
kidneys, skin, lungs, and GI tract
continuous and occurs through the skin and lungs; patient does not perceive the loss, but it can significantly increase with fever or burns
insensible water loss
occurs through excess perspiration and can be perceived by the client or through inspection. Sympathic nervous system activates sweat glands to regulate water loss from the skin.
Sensible loss
what EKG changes will you see with hypokalemia?
flattened T wave on monitor, ventricular rhythms will effect what you see in your T wave
what 2 electrolytes are inversely related?
Calcium and phosphorus
what is pH a reflection of?
balance between CO2 and HCO3
what is CO2 regulated by?
Lungs
what is HCO3 regulated by?
Kidneys
the energy needed to maintain life-sustaining activities like breathing, circulation, heart rate, and temperature for a specific period of time at rest
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
the amount of energy an individual needs to consume over a 24 hours period for the body to maintain all its internal working activities while at rest
Resting Energy Expenditure (REE)
the elements necessary for body process and function: carbs, proteins, fats, water, vitamins and minerals
nutrients
what are the macronutrients?
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids (fats), and water
what are the micronutrients?
vitamins and minerals
fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K
water soluble vitamins
B, C
what is the main source of energy in the diet?
Carbs
protein like substances that act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions
Enzymes
avoids meat, fish, and poultry but eats eggs and milk
Ovolactovegetarian
drinks milk but no eggs
Lactovegetarian
consumes only plant foods
Vegans
fruits, nuts, honey and olive oil (nutrient poor)
Fruitarian
Diet: thickened diet for clients with difficulty swallowing (CVA)
Dysphagia Diet
IBW for females
100 lbs for 5 feet plus 5 lbs per inch over 5 feet
IBW for males
106 lbs for 5 feet plus 6 lbs per inch over 5 feet
Albumin level
3.5-5
Total lymphocyte count
1800-3000
Total pre-albumin
15-36; best indicator for acute condition
what could giving protein too fast cause?
seizure
what is restricted with celiac disease?
Gluten
Diet: small meals, low fat, high protein, NO carbonated beverages, or high fiber
Gastric by-pass diet
Diet: minimizes elimination, restrict high fiber foods, fried foods, pepper, alcohol, heavy seasonings ect - IBS
Low-residue diet
Diet: for malabsorption, chronic pancreatitis, gallbladder disease or clients with CVD, CHF
Fat-controlled diet
Diet: renal disease and liver disease
Protein-controlled diet
15 g of carb = ? servings
1 serving
how many calories should a diabetic intake daily?
1800, 900 should be carbs