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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is:
"Young-Old"?
"Old"?
"Old-Old"?
"Elite-old"?
65-75 years
75-85 years
85-100 years
over 100 years
Focus areas in "Healthy People 2010" relevant to elders:
* Access to quality health services.
* Cancer
* Chronic Kidney disease
* Diabetes
* Disability
* Education - Community-based programs
* Food Safety
* Health communication
Healthy People 2010 conti.
* Heart disease and stroke
* Immunizations and infectious diseases
* Injury and violence prevention
* Mental health
*Nutrition and obesity
*Oral Health
*Physical activity and fitness
* Respiratory disease
*Substance abuse
*Tobacco abuse
*Vision and hearing
Ageism
Deep profound prejudice in American society against older adults.
Gerontology vs Geriatrics
"ology" = study of aging and older adults.

"iatrics" = associated with medical care.
I. Care Settings for Elders
Acute care - 65 and older use the ER at the highest rate.

* nurses in this setting protect the health of older adult.
* goal is to have older adult return to prior level of independence.
II. Care Settings for Elders
Long-term care facilities
* assisted living - help with ADL's - - specialized units, ie. Alzheimer's
III. Care Settings for Elders
Hospice - care for dying

Rehabilitation - goal is to maintain physical independence.
IV. Care Settings for Elders
"Community"
* Home health care - homebound

* Nurse-run clinics - manage chronic illness, follow-up via telephone. Helps decrease hospital readmission.

* Adult daycare - focus on social activites, and health care.
Biological Theories of Aging
* Wear and tear
* Endocrine
* Free-radical
* Genetic
* Cross-linking - (chemical rx's create stong bonds between proteins)
* Immunological
I. Physiological Aging
* Integumentary - nutrition, H2O, sunscreen

* Neuromuscular - sarcopenia (muscle loss) - osteopenia then osteoporosis (bone loss)
--Wt. Train, and walk!

* Neouromuscular - loss of speed and power.

*Sensory/Perception - decreases pain, touch, smell, vision, hearing, taste.
II. Physiological Aging
* Pulmonary - decreased ability to expel foreign matter, lung expansion, dyspnea with exercise.

* Cardiovascular - reduced cardiac output, elasticity of arteries, increased BP, othrostatic hypotension (fluid volume shift)
III. Physiological Aging
* Gastrointestinal - delayed swallowing, increased indigestion and constipation.

Urinary - reduced filtering, less concentrated, increased frequncy & urgency
(esp. nocturnal)

* Genitals - (M) increase prostate size, time to arousal, more flacid diggler, longer refractory period.
(W) - atrophy of all internals, changes in vaginal flora, dryness (less lube)
IV. Physiological Aging
* Immunological - lowered resistance, poor response to immunization, decreased stress response.

* Endocrince - increased insulin resistance, decreased thyroid function.
I. Psychosocial Aging
"disengagement theory"
1960's by Cumming & Henry
-- involves mutual withdrawal between older person and other's in their environment.
II. Psychosocial Aging
"activity theory"
by Havighurst
-- best way to age is to stay active physically and mentally.
III. Psychosocial Aging
" continuity theory"
by Atchley
-- people maintain their values, habits, and behavior in old age.
"set in your ways"
Cognitive Abilities and Aging
* Perception - ability to interpret the environment.

* Sensory memory - momentary perception of environmental stimuli.

* Short-term memory - info for immediate use minutes to hours. aka: "recent memory"

* Long-term memory - repository of info- longer than 72 hours to many years.
Moral Reasoning
by Kohlberg 1984 - moral development completed in early adult years, avoid pain & displeasure of others.

by Gilligan 1982 - challenged Kohlberg's theo does not apply to women. Her theory is based on "concept of caring".
Spirituality and Aging
Many elders take faith and religious practice very seriously. Grew up with religion as a central focus...just continues as they age. vs today's youth and indifference.
Health Problems
* Injuries - falls 87% of all fractures...driving, fires, burns.

* Chronic disabiling illness

* Drug use and Misuse

* Alcoholism - 2 types, early in life and later in life (many are widowers)

*Dementia - progressive loss of cognitive function.
Elder Mistreatment
Approx. 1 -2 million American over age 65 have been abused neglected, or exploited.
Health Promotion Guidelines for Elders
* Health tests and screening

* Safety

* Nutrition and exercise

* Elimination

* Social interactions