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40 Cards in this Set

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alkane
simple C bonds, saturated, suffix (ane)
alkene
double C bonds, suffix (ene)
alkyne
triple C bonds, suffix (yne)
halide
C is bonded to 1 H and 1 X (halogen, can be F, Cl, Br, I)
arene
aka aromatic ring or aromatic hydrocarbon (many of compounds have a sweet scent), 9 bonds shared between 6 C atoms, electrons move around
alcohol
OH bonded to C, suffix (ol), ex. CH3OH is methanol
ether
O between 2 C's
amine
C bonded to N with a free pair (2 electrons)
thiol
C bonded to SH (thio is Greek for sulfur)
sulfide
analogous to ethers (S at the place of O), 2 C's bonded to an S
disulfide
C bonded to S, bonded to another S, bonded to C (2 S atoms btwn 2 C atoms)
sulfoxide
sulfide structure (S btwn 2 C atoms) with O single bonded to S atom, S remains 1+, O remains 1-
aldehyde
carbonyl group in it, with 1 of remaining 2 bonds attaching to H, last remaining bond to something else, suffix (al)
carbonyl group
C double bonded to O
ketone
C atom bonded to 2 other C atoms and double bonded to O atom, suffix (one)
carboxylic acid
organic, COOH, C double bonded to O and single bonded to OH and another C
ester
C double bonded to O, single bonded to another O, which is attached to another C atom, suffix (oate)
thioester
like ester, but S at the place of single bonded O, so C double bonded to O atom, then single bonded to S atom, which is bonded to another C atom, suffix (thioate)
naming an ester group
use what's attached to single bonded O atom to name
amide
C double bonded to O, single bonded to C and N (with free pair), suffix (amide)
acid chloride
an organic compound with the functional group -CO-Cl, O is double bonded to C atom, suffix (oyl chloride)
relation between type of bonds and reactivity
triple bond is more reactive (aka less stable) than dbl or sngl, dbl is more reactive than single
alkane reactivity
alkane is saturated, so not very reactive, stable
C and Si
form the basis of most natural substances, Si is to geologists what C is to biologists
Why does C form the basis of so many substances
because of C's unusual ability to bond strongly to itself and form long chains or rings of carbon atoms (also forms strong bonds to other nonmetals
substitution reaction
alkanes can undergo these reactions, where primarily halogen atoms replace hydrogen atoms (i.e. methane can be successively chlorinated)
combustion reaction
at sufficiently high temp. alkanes react vigorously and exothermically with oxygen, these reactions are the basis of their widespread use as fuels
dehydrogenation reaction
where hydrogen atoms are removed from alkanes and the end result is an unsaturated hydrocarbon.
cyclic alkanes
carbon atoms form rings, are more reactive than straight chain counterparts since carbon atom bonds are strained (much smaller than tetrahedral sp3 angles) and therefore unusually weak
pi bonds
covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of one involved electron orbital overlap two lobes of the other involved electron orbital. Only one of the orbital's nodal planes passes through both of the involved nuclei.
cis/trans isomerism or geometric isomerism or configuration isomerism or E/Z isomerism
form of stereoisomerism, describes orientation of functional groups within molecule that cannot twist/rotate, generally have dbl bonds (cannot rotate) or ring structures (rotation of bonds is greatly restricted)
cis (latin)
meaning on the same side of
trans (latin)
meaning across, beyond, or on opposite sides
halogenation
involves addition of halogen atom(s) to unsaturated hydrocarbons
phenyl group
phenyl group or ring has the formula C6H5
unsaturated hydrocarbons
not alkane (CnH2n+2), and generally undergo rapid addition reactions, except for benzene, where it undergoes substitution reactions (H is replaced by other atoms)
thermoset polymer
cannot be softened again or dissolved once molded under high pressure and temperature (i.e. Bakelite)
thermoplastic polymer
can be remelted after being molded at high pressure and temperature (i.e. cellulose nitrate)
free radical
a species with an unpaired electron (thought to be cause of cell damage and aging), closely associated with oxidative damage, antioxidants (reducing agents) limit its damaging effects
Wallace H. Carothers
organic chemist responsible for development of nylon and 1st synthetic rubber (Neoprene)