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67 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 steps of the economic development planning process?
1. Public economic development agencies and private businesses organize for planning.

2. Economic development opportunities are identified.

3. Action plans are developed.

4. These plans are implemented by both the public economic development agencies and the involved private businesses.
What are the 2 categories that public economic development activities fall into?
1. Business attraction and retention.

2. Real estate development.
What is a "business location profile"?
A profile that identifies the area's strengths and weaknesses according to commonly used corporate selection criteria. Used to evaluate businesses to target in a business attraction/retention effort.
What are the 3 initial phases or Real Estate Development?
1. SITE & AREA ASSESSMENT: Each lot and building in the study area is inventoried to determine whether favorable conditions exist for certain types of development.

2. MARKET ANALYSIS: Performed for the larger, regional area. Includes target markets, potential competitors, demands, market capture rates, niches, and market penetration rates are identified for each considered use and site. The demographic and economic trends that underlie these factors are also studied.

3. ABSORPTION POTENTIAL & ATTAINABLE PRICES: For each considered use and site are estimated.
What are the 3 intermediary phases of Real Estate Development?
4. PRELIMINARY USE OPPORTUNITIES & CONCEPTS are developed for each considered site.

5. An INITIAL FINANCIAL ANALYSIS is performed to insure the feasibility of each considered concept.

6. A DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM refines the physical configurations of each considered concept.
What are the final 2 steps in the Real Estate Development process?
7. A FINAL FEASIBILITY & INVESTMENT ANALYSIS is performed to select the best concept, use, and site.

8. An IMPLEMENTATION ACTION PLAN is prepared and implemented to build, market, and manage the selected concept, use, and site.
What are the common characteristics of industrial parks?
Should have between 100 - 1,000 acres of land with good highway or rail access, all utilities in place, and either covenants or zoning to protect the atmosphere.
What are the common characteristics of research & development parks?
Usually located near a major university or in an area with extraordinarily good living conditions. "Science Parks" usually target the earliest stages of product development. "Technology Parks" usually involve more production and manufacturing activities.
Explain the concept of "workforce attraction and retention".
The economic development theory that younger workers select the place they want to live and then find a job once they get there. Focuses on creating places young workers want to live. Corporations typically focus on 20-35 year old workers because they generally have the most time to devote to work.
Explain the 4 steps of the National Main Street Model.
1. Organizing the governments, residents, and business interests of a downtown district.

2. Improving a district's design and appearance.

3. Promoting the district through coordinated marketing.

4. Diversifying the district's economic structure.

Special assessment districts and storefront improvement grants are often involved.
What factors are relevant to an area's "business climate"?
Tax structures and levels, prevailing wages, degree of unionization, environmental regulations, educational funding, investment incentives, local banks and their attitudes towards financing.
What factors are relevant to an area's "economic capacity"?
Availability of infrastructure, research and development organizations, public school systems, local banks and availability of equity capital, incubators, and workforce.
What are the two sources of business financing?
Equity (owner investment capital) and Debt
What is the CDBG program?
Longest continuously operating program under the jurisdiction of the US Dept of Housing and Urban Development. It is an annual entitlement program based on predetermined formulae for funding disbursements, with 1200 entitlement communities nationwide.
What are the 3 national objectives CDBG funds can be used for?
1. To benefit low and moderate income persons.

2. To prevent or eliminate slums and blight.

3. To address urgent community needs due to a serious and immediate threat.
What is the % allocation required of how CDBG funds are spent?
-At least 70% to help low and mod income persons
-No more than 30% to prevent or eliminate slums and blight
-No more than 15% to support "public services"
-No more than 20% for program administration
What is the HOME Federal Block Grant?
Designed exclusively to create affordable housing for low-income households. Recipients must match every dollar with a quarter from non-federal sources. 15% of funds must go to Community Housing Development Corporations, and HOME funds must be committed within 2 years, and spent within 5 years.
What is the purpose of the HOPE Program?
To eradicate severely distressed housing by focusing on 1) physical improvements, 2) management improvements, and 3) social and community services to address resident needs. The program focuses on public housing.
How can HOPE funds be used?
Can be used in conjunction with a Main Street Program to develop affordable housing along a revitalized thoroughfare. Uses can include capital costs of major rehabs, new construction, demolition, site acquisition, and program support for residents.
What is consolidated planning?
Consolidated plans are a federal approach to grant programming and assistance for the less fortunate. These plans focus on all entitlement grants offered to a community and serve as a single grant application
Planners' use of a Consolidated Plan?
The data and analysis performed under a consolidated plan form an excellent base for a Comp Plan rewrite or update.
American Dream Downpayment Initiative
Created to increase the homeownership rate among minority and low income households by offering assistance to first-time homebuyers with down payment and closing costs
Emergency Shelter Grant
Provides basic shelter and support services to homeless people by providing assistance to the shelter operators. It can also provide short-term homeless prevention to those about to lose their homes.
Brownfields Economic Development Initiative
A competitive grant to stimulate economic development in brownfields where there is actual or potential environmental contamination.
A program to allow non-profits working with at-risk teens to teach housing construction skills and complete a high school education.
What are common threats to Historic Preservation?
1. Funding sources at all levels and all origins are diminishing in favor of other programs.

2. Transportation projects are the single greatest threat preservation efforts. Even if not
directly “touched” by a transportation project, a site can lose its historic value by losing the
architectural and physical vernacular in which is was established.

3. Property rights can threaten preservation efforts, though a good preservation program will
seek to preserve property rights wherever and whenever possible.

4. The development attitude that “you can’t stop progress” which results in indiscriminate
demolition of sites or preservation/reconstruction of only the façade.

5. Political action in the form of funding or legislation that preempts or sets aside local
preservation efforts.
What is important to know about the National Register of Historic Places?
1. Administered by the National Park Service, is a list of properties deemed worthy of preservation.

2. Properties on the list may get some form of tax relief or federal assistance.

3. Federal money cannot be used to demolish a property on the register.

4. The inclusion of a property on the register neither prohibits the installation of improvements nor secures an increase in value.
What is a Local Historic District?
A geographic area containing a group of sites that have been declared to be historically or architecturally significant. "Contributing properties" are properties that add to the historical (or architectural) integrity of the district as a whole.
What was the first example of a "local historic district"?
1931 Charleston, SC: Adopted an ordinance designating an "old and historic district" and created an architectural review board to administer it. It forbid the alteration of any structure which could be seen by the general public.
Power of the Local Historic District Designation
The local district grants the greatest level of protection under the law, more so than a federal or state designation, because of the grassroots nature of the designation. Places a high level of review and control over private property, architectural review boards can approve or disapprove any proposed change to any proposed structure in the district.
What is a National Historic Landmark?
A building, district, site, object, or structure designated by the US Govt for its historical significance.
What was the first National Historic Landmark?
The Sergeant Floyd grave/monument in Sioux City, IA. It, along with 90 others, were designated June 30, 1960.
What is a National Natural Landmark?
Designated by the US govt to sites of particular interest to the natural history of the area. These sites must have landowner concurrence; there is no law protecting the sites. This designation automatically extinguishes when a property transfers ownership. This program began in 1962.
NYC Tenement House Law 1867, the "Old Law"
The first major housing code in the US. Required a narrow air shaft between adjacent structures, windows that opened on to this shaft, two toilets on each floor, and a window of at least one square yard in each room.
NYC Tenement House Law 1901, the "New Law"
Drafted by Lawrence Veiller. Vigorously enforced and created first tenement house department to enforce regulations. Required wide light/air courts between structures, toilets and running water in each unit.
Lawrence Veiller
First full-time housing reformer in the US and founder of the National Housing Association. Drafted the 1901 Tenement House Law.
Impact of the Housing Act of 1934 and subsequent creation of the FHA (Page 101)
Created a program to insure private home loans, extended standard repayment periods on home loans in uniform monthly payments, created minimum standards for development that favored high-income types of housing, eventually led to projects like Levittown and home ownership become the norm in the US
Impact of the Housing Act of 1937
This law became the foundation for most future federal public housing programs for the poor.
Housing Act of 1949
This law created urban renewal, a federal program for urban redevelopment
Housing Act of 1954
Expanded the urban renewal program. Section 701 established the first federal matching funds for local comp plans for communities of less than 25,000
Housing Act of 1959
Made federal funds for comp plans available at the metro, regional, state, and interstate level
Housing Act of 1961
Provided interest subsidies for the construction of public housing projects for low and mod income families to rent. Successor to 1937 Act.
Housing and Urban Development Act 1965
Created HUD, provided rent supplement payments for qualifying individuals, private home loans for low and mod families at 3% interest, and subsidies for an additional 240,000 low rent public housing projects
Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act of 1966
In this model, residents of "Model City Districts" decided on their own problems, priorities, and solutions, and the federal government then funded those solutions.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Together with Jones vs. Mayer, this law made racial discrimination (in covenants previously) in the sale or rental of housing illegal
Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968
Provided for the construction of 6 million subsidized housing units over the next decade.
Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968 and circular A-95
Required area-wide regional planning agency review of proposals for local participation in federal development programs. Helped establish a basis for regional planning
Housing and Community Development Act 1974
Consolidated several federal municipal assistance programs into the Community Development Block Grant Program. Also created Section 8 rent supplement program for low-income housing.
National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Act 1974
Manufactured housing units could not be excluded from a community, but munis could regulate their locations, sizes, and appearances
Housing and Community Development Act 1977
Stopped federal funding of comp plans, created UDAG program, and later HoDAG
National Affordable Housing Act 1990
Law initiated the HOME program for housing rehabilitation
What are the typical components of a Housing Plan Element?
1. Housing Market Analysis: Projects the number of housing units that will be needed at a certain time in the future.

2. An identification of the relevant issues

3. Gathering and analyzing data: The causes, nature, and extent of the problems are measured here

4. Program Objectives: Realistic and achievable goals are set towards studying the problems

5. Implementation
Who was Catherine Bauer?
First director of the United States Housing Authority (USHA) created in 1937.
What book did Catherine Bauer write and what was its impact?
In 1951 she wrote "Social Questions in Housing" which promoted social planning and condemned the federal urban renewal program
What book did the Sec. of Agriculture, Orville Freeman, publish in 1967?
Communities of Tomorrow, which argued that urban living was bad, and that spread-out development was a better solution.
What was the impact of the Agricultural Adjustment Act 1933?
Introduced the concepts of price support, production adjustments, and commodity loans. Some of the concepts (such as production controls) were later ruled unconstitutional
What was the impact of the Agricultural Adjustment Act 1938?
Introduced mandatory pricing support to maintain supply of corn, cotton, and wheat in a time of shortage. Along with the Ag Act of 1949, these two laws form the basis of Ag law in the US
What was the impact of the Food and Agricultural Act 1965?
This began the subsidy program for milk
What was the impact of the Farmland Protection Policy Act 1981?
This sought to minimize the negative impact the federal government was having on converting farmland to other uses.
What was the impact of the Food Agriculture Conservation and Trade Act 1990 (FACTA)?
This was the first omnibus agricultural legislation. It continued to move agriculture back to a market-oriented approach.
What was the impact of the Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act 1996?
Created the Rural Community Advancement Program and the Fund for Rural America, both of which provide funding to develop and maintain rural development interests and applied research projects
What was the impact of Bormann vs. Board of Supervisors 1998?
The Iowa Supreme Court struck down “Right to Farm” legislation as unconstitutional on two fronts. First, it represented unequal treatment by granting farmers immunities not given other landowners, and second it created a de facto taking allowing a farmer to set his odors, noises, and light free across neighboring property. This gave him, in effect, an invasive easement across those properties, which requires compensation.
The process of adding land to an incorporated area or swapping land between two or more incorporated areas.
Extraterritorial Jurisdiction
a power of incorporated municipalities to regulate land use for a certain distance outside the actual municipal boundary. This enables a municipality to set an orderly growth and development pattern in place before formal annexation occurs
Amicable Annexation
Occurs when the subject property owner(s) agree (or do not object to) a proposed annexation. Oftentimes an amicable annexation occurs when a developer wants to develop a tract of land and desires municipal services
Hostile Annexation
occurs when the subject property owner(s) oppose a proposed annexation. This happens in situations where an unwilling landowner is situated between the incorporated area of a municipality and a tract proposed to be annexed, or in a case where the sum total of previous annexations have left and “island” of unincorporated land in the middle of a municipality, which now needs to be filled.