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18 Cards in this Set

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1950s, Chomsky theory Generative (biogenetic) grammar?
The mind itself own linguistic principles. most of this knowledge is innate, with the result that a baby can have a large body of prior knowledge about the structure of language in general, and need only actually learn the idiosyncratic features of the language(s) it is exposed to.
Morphology , Phonology, and (Chomsky's) Transformational Grammar.
Morphology (The study of the structure and form of words), Phonology (the study of speech sound)
Transformational grammar (a generative grammar models only the knowledge that underlies the human ability to speak and understand.)
Chomsky's : construction and evaluation of grammatical theories- Distinction between competence and performance?
People, when speaking in the real world, often make linguistic errors. these errors in linguistic performance were irrelevant to the knowledge that allows people to construct and understand grammatical sentences. Chomsky made a distinction:
A descriptively adequate grammar for a particular language defines the set of grammatical sentences in that language
. A grammar which achieves explanatory adequacy has the additional property that it gives an insight into the underlying linguistic structures in the human mind; that is, it does not merely describe the grammar of a language, but makes predictions about how linguistic knowledge is mentally represented.
Noan Chomsky ?
Noam Chomsky is the main proponent of the importance of biological influences on language development.
Chomsky proposed that human brains have a language acquisition device that allows children to acquire language easily.
Structures of Language
Language is a system of symbols and rules used for meaningful communication.
A language uses symbols and syntax and is meaningful and generative.
Language is organized hierarchically from phonemes to morphemes to phrases and sentences.
Children develop language in a set sequence of stages.
1950s, Chomsky theory Generative (biogenetic) grammar?
The mind itself own linguistic principles. most of this knowledge is innate, with the result that a baby can have a large body of prior knowledge about the structure of language in general, and need only actually learn the idiosyncratic features of the language(s) it is exposed to.
Morphology , Phonology, and (Chomsky's) Transformational Grammar.
Morphology (The study of the structure and form of words), Phonology (the study of speech sound)
Transformational grammar (a generative grammar models only the knowledge that underlies the human ability to speak and understand.)
Chomsky's : construction and evaluation of grammatical theories- Distinction between competence and performance?
People, when speaking in the real world, often make linguistic errors. these errors in linguistic performance were irrelevant to the knowledge that allows people to construct and understand grammatical sentences. Chomsky made a distinction:
A descriptively adequate grammar for a particular language defines the set of grammatical sentences in that language
. A grammar which achieves explanatory adequacy has the additional property that it gives an insight into the underlying linguistic structures in the human mind; that is, it does not merely describe the grammar of a language, but makes predictions about how linguistic knowledge is mentally represented.
Noan Chomsky ?
Noam Chomsky is the main proponent of the importance of biological influences on language development.
Chomsky proposed that human brains have a language acquisition device that allows children to acquire language easily.
Structures of Language
Language is a system of symbols and rules used for meaningful communication.
A language uses symbols and syntax and is meaningful and generative.
Language is organized hierarchically from phonemes to morphemes to phrases and sentences.
Children develop language in a set sequence of stages.
Theories of Language Acquisition
Behaviorist B. F. Skinner language depends largely on environment. people acquire language through principles of conditioning.

Some cognitive neuroscientists have created neural networks that can acquire some aspects of language by encountering many examples of language. They think children may acquire language in the same way.
Noam Chomsky is the main proponent of the importance of biological influences on language development.
Chomsky proposed that human brains have a language acquisition device that allows children to acquire language easily.
Some researchers believe that language is both biologically and environmentally determined.
The linguistic relativity hypothesis states that language determines the way people think.
Today, researchers believe language influences, rather than determines, thought.
Two ways that people use language to influence thinking are semantic slanting and name calling.
People master a new language better if they begin learning it in childhood.
Nonhuman animals can learn some aspects of language.
Theories of Language Acquisition -nature v. nurture
some researchers emphasize the influences of learning on language acquisition, while others emphasize the biological influences.

Receptive Language before Expressive Language

Children’s ability to understand language develops faster than their ability to speak it. Receptive language is the ability to understand language, and expressive language is the ability to use language to communicate.
Environmental Influences on Language Acquisition
A major proponent of the idea that language depends largely on environment was the behaviorist B. F. Skinner . He believed that language is acquired through principles of conditioning, including association, imitation, and reinforcement.

According to this view, children learn words by associating sounds with objects, actions, and events. They also learn words and syntax by imitating others. Adults enable children to learn words and syntax by reinforcing correct speech.

Critics arguments:

Learning cannot account for the rapid rate at which children acquire language.
There can be an infinite number of sentences in a language. All these sentences cannot be learned by imitation.
Children make errors, such as overregularizing verbs. Errors can’t result from imitation, since adults generally use correct verb forms.
Children acquire language skills even though adults do not consistently correct their syntax.
Neural Networks
Some cognitive neuroscientists have created neural networks, or computer models, that can acquire some aspects of language. These neural networks are not preprogrammed with any rules. Instead, they are exposed to many examples of a language. Using these examples, the neural networks have been able to learn the language’s statistical structure and accurately make the past tense forms of verbs. The developers of these networks speculate that children may acquire language in a similar way, through exposure to multiple example
Biological Influences on Language Acquisition
The main proponent of the view that biological influences bring about language development is the well-known linguist Noam Chomsky. Chomsky argues that human brains have a language acquisition device (LAD), an innate mechanism or process that allows children to develop language skills. According to this view, all children are born with a universal grammar, which makes them receptive to the common features of all languages. Because of this hard-wired background in grammar, children easily pick up a language when they are exposed to its particular grammar.

Evidence for an innate human capacity to acquire language skills comes from the following observations:

The stages of language development occur at about the same ages in most children, even though different children experience very different environments.
Children’s language development follows a similar pattern across cultures.
Children generally acquire language skills quickly and effortlessly.
Deaf children who have not been exposed to a language may make up their own language. These new languages resemble each other in sentence structure, even when they are created in different cultures.
Biology and Environment
Some researchers have proposed theories that emphasize the importance of both nature and nurture in language acquisition. These theorists believe that humans do have an innate capacity for acquiring the rules of language. However, they believe that children develop language skills through interaction with others rather than acquire the knowledge automatically.
Language, Culture, and Thought
Researchers have differing views about the extent to which language and culture influence the way people think. In the 1950s, Benjamin Lee Whorf proposed the linguistic relativity hypothesis. He said language determines the way people think. For example, Whorf said that Eskimo people and English-speaking people think about snow differently because the Eskimo language has many more words for snow than the English language does.

Most subsequent research has not supported Whorf’s hypothesis. Researchers do acknowledge, however, that language can influence thought in subtle ways. For example, the use of sexist terminology may influence how people think about women. Two ways that people commonly use language to influence thinking are semantic slanting and name calling.

Semantic Slanting
Semantic slanting is a way of making statements so that they will evoke specific emotional responses.

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Name Calling
Name calling is a strategy of labeling people in order to influence their thinking. In anticipatory name calling, it is implied that if someone thinks in a particular way, he or she will receive an unfavorable label.
Bilingualism
Although people sometimes assume that bilingualism impairs children’s language development, there is no evidence to support this assumption. Bilingual children develop language at the same rate as children who speak only one language. In general, people who begin learning a new language in childhood master it more quickly and thoroughly than do people who learn a language in adulthood.