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192 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 states of matter?
Solid, liquid, gas
Volume:
the amount of space matter takes up. You can find the volume of an object by seeing how much water it displaces.
Weight:
The force of gravity on an object. Not to be interchanged with mass.
Physical changes:
do not alter the molecular structure but do alter the physical appearance of the matter.
Chemical changes:
alter the molecular structure of matter
Density:
the ratio of mass to volume.
Chemical reaction:
2 or more compounds can combine or break down to form new compounds with new molecular structures.
Element:
made of one type of atom. Each element is represented by one or two letter and a number. Each element has an atomic number which is the number of protons in the atom.
Compound:
made of several types of atoms chemically combined in specific proportion
Mixture:
made of several types of molecules but not chemically combined.
Molecule:
the smallest particle of a substance that retains properties of the substance and can exist independently.
Atoms:
invisible, basic building block of matter made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Protons and Neutrons
are in the Nucleus. Protons have a positive charge.Neutron have neutral charge.
Electrons
are in the outer portion of the atom. They have a negative charge.
Heat:
the energy of a moving molecule
Energy:
the ability of matter to move other matter or produce a chemical change
3 Types of Energy
Heat energy- electrical energy
Mechanical energy- wave energy
Chemical energy- nuclear energy
Celsius scale:
0 degrees is freezing and 100 degrees is boiling.
Fahrenheit scale:
32 degrees is freezing and 212 degrees is boiling
Temperature:
the measure of how hot or cold a body is in relation to a standard.
Force:
a push or pull
Two types of force and examples
1) contact- machines(mechanical)
2) distance (magnetic force)
Electrostatic Force:
the power resulting from electricity as an attractive or repulsive interaction between two charged objects. Positive and negative oppositely charged objects will attract each other. Like charges will repel each other.
Gravitational force:
the attraction or pull of objects in the universe toward one another such as the moon, the sun, and Earth.
Magnetic Force:
the materials that will attract materials made of iron, steel, cobalt, or nickel. The magnet is strongest at the ends or poles.
Friction-
surfaces that touch have resistance to motion. Produces Static Electricity
Two types of friction and what they do?
static- objects touch...no move
kinetic- objects touch and move
What is the direction of friction force?
Opposite of the direction of motion.
Static Electricity:
Rubbing materials together cause the transfer of electrons from one material to another. (make item more negatively charged)
 Centripetal force
is a force that makes a body follow a curved path.
 Inertia
is the resistance for an object to change its state of motion.
 Unbalanced Force:
always causes a change in motion. The object with the greatest force will cause the other object to move.
 Balanced Force:
does not cause movement because two objects are balanced.
 Centrifugal force
represents the effects of inertia that arise in connection with rotation and which are experienced as an outward force away from the center of rotation.
List the money forms of energy
heat, light, sound
Is energy potential or kinetic?
both
potential energy-
stored energy
kinetic energy-
energy of motion
How does sound occur?
An object vibrates rapidly
How do sound vibrations travel?
in waves
How does sound occur in humans?
1) sound wave reaches ear 2) ear carries sound to auditory nerve 3) auditory nerve carries sound to brain
Pitch
is the high or low tone to the sound.
Quality
is the vibration of parts or as a whole that affects sound quality.
Intensity
is the loudness or softness of the sound.
What produces an electrical current?
the flow of electrons
Series circuit
is made of a single path through which all electric currents must flow.
 Conductors-
allow the flow of electrons
 Insulators-
do not allow the flow of electrons
Geology:
study of the composition and structure of the Earth
What are the Three layers of Earth crust? describe them.
Crust- outerlayer composed of bedrock
1)Mantle- semi-molten layer between the crust and the core
2)Core- solid iron and nickel 3)middle part of the Earth
Faults:
cracks in the crust and are the results of movements in the plates.
Seismograph
measures earthquakes using the Richter scale
Earthquakes
occur when plate slide past each other quickly.
Volcanoes
are mountains that form when two pieces of crust move away from each other and allow molten rock to rise up.
Magma
is molten rock under the crust of the earth.
Lava
magma on the earth’s surface coming up and out of the volcano it cools and hardens on the Earth’s surface or forms rivers of hot lava.
Continental drift-
the movement and change in position of the continents over the Earth’s surface
Seafloor spreading-
creation of new ocean floor crust at mid-ocean ridges and movement of the crust away from the mid-ocean ridges.
Fossils:
preserved remnants or marks (such as footprints) made by animals and plants that were once alive.
Plate tectonics-
a theory explaining the movement of the plates that form the earth’s crust. At the edge of the plates there are things like volcanoes, earthquakes, and mountain building.
How do fossils form?
sediment covers animals or marks and hardens into rocks
Rocks:
naturally occurring solids found on or below Earth’s surface.Can be just one element or compounds.
What are the 3 types of rocks and describe them.
1)Metamorphic Rocks: rocks that have morphed into other kinds of rocks because of extreme heat and pressure. Marble is a metamorphic rock.
2) Igneous Rock: these are fire rocks or cooled magma. They are formed above or below ground. Melted rock, magma, become trapped in pockets and then cools forming igneous rock. When magma rises to the Earth’s surface, it is called lava. Granite is an igneous rock.
3)Sedimentary Rock: the form due to water or wind affecting pieces of earth. These bits of earth become rocks over thousands and millions of years. Limestone is a sedimentary rock.
Erosion
is the wearing away of the earth and rocks by wind, running water, and glaciers.
Water cycle:
Precipitation, evaporation, condensation,transpiration
Sublimination-
water transfers from solid to gas
Evaporation-
water becomes vapor and occurs more in warmer weather and when large bodies of water are present
Precipitation-
water that falls to the earth in the form of rain, snow and sleet.
Air mass:
a huge body of air that covers the earth’s surface forming when there is a difference in temperature and humidity in that part of atmosphere.
Sea Breezes
occur because land heats faster than water. Cool ocean breezes moving towards land usually begin mid-morning and end at sunset.
Air masses moving towards and away from earth are called?
wind currents.
Front-
when two air masses meet the boundary between them is called a front and usually has stormy weather.
Monsoons:
huge wind systems that are seasonal.
Jet Stream:
winds of high speed that travel in belts around the earth.
Dew Point-
the air temperature when water vapor begins to condense.
Hurricanes:
storms form over oceans with warm, moist air and forms a storm system with an “eye” a longer lasting storm that is slow moving with high winds.
Tornadoes
are short-lived storms that are formed by winds over land.

ones formed over water are called water spouts
What are thunderstorms made up of?
dark cumulus clouds with thunder and lightning.
What are the 3 types of clouds?
describe them.
1)Status: Flat clouds that can be light or dark
2)Cumulus: Thick, Fluffy clouds that can be light or dark.
3)Cirrus: Thin, wispy clouds
Soil:
a mixture of water, air, minerals, and organic materials.
describe the 3 components that make up soil.
1)Sand- largest of the three minerals and does not have good absorption
2)Silt- next largest and has medium absorption and some nutrients
3) Clay- smallest mineral- smoothest- hold more water than others and more nutrients
Aquifer-
underground layer of water-bearing, porous rock. This layer of porous rock holds liquids like water, gas, or oil.
Sinkhole-
when the upper layer of earth collapses into a hole beneath.
Reservoir-
container that holds liquids or the collection of water by artificial means such as a beaver’s dam or man-made lake.
Leaching-
Liquids move through the porous rock leaving minerals behind.
Map scales-
represent distances by ratio
Legends-
offer additional information about the map in the form of symbols and what they represent.
Geological map-
provide information about the earth
Topographical map-
provide information about altitudes of land forms
Compass Rose-
give the cardinal directions of N,S, E, W.
Latitude-
measured by parallels and is the distance from the Equator.
Longitude-
measured by meridians- distance east and west of the Prime Meridian.
Parallels-
lines that run east to west on a map.
Prime Meridian-
the meridian line that has a measurement of 0% E-W.
Meridian-
imaginary lines on maps showing quad. of the earth that run from n. pole to s. pole, 360 of them in 1% increments.
What element is the sun made up of?
hydrogen
The eight planet plus one dwarf
mercury, venus, earth, mars, jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune and PLUTO
What are the inner planets composed of (Mercury-Mars)
rocky and metallic minerals
What are the outer planets made up of?
gasses
AU-Astronomical Unit-
is used to express distance from the sun. 1 AU is the distance from the Earth to the sun.
Meteoroid-
composed of particles of rock and metal.As it travels through the earth’s atmosphere its surface heats up and begins to burn. This is what we see as a shooting star.
Hubble telescope-
optical telescope that orbits around the earth.
Comet-
mass of frozen gas and rocky particles. Comets have a nucleus and tail.
What was Sputnik and when was it launched?
Russian rocket. Oct. 4, 1957
What was the significance of Sputnik?
Created great Space Race. Gov. funded more math and science in the schools.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA)-
established by Congress in 1958 to coordinate space research.
When and on what mission did we land on the moon?
Who walked on the moon?
Apollo 2 July 20, 1969
Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin
What are the phases of the moon. Define them.
Full Moon- occurs when the sun and moon are on opposites sides of the earth.
 Waning Moon- decreasing in size from a full moon.
 New Moon- when the sun and moon are on the same side of the earth there is no illumination of the moon in the sky.
 Waxing Moon- increasing in size from a new moon.
How often does the moon orbit the earth?
every 27 days.
What causes tides?
gravitational pull of the moon.
What causes seasons on Earth?
tilt of the Earth and revolution around the sun.
Does the Earth change distance from the sun?
No, Earth is always the same distance from the sun.
Characteristics of Living Things:
 Living things are made up of one or more cells.
 Living things must adapt to environmental changes.
 Living things carry on metabolic processes by using and making energy.
What are cells?
basic structural unit of living things.
All living organisms are ____ based?
carbon
Microorganisms.
include all living things that are too small to be seen by the naked human eye. Like fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protists
Fungi
reproduce via spores and include yeasts and mold.
Protozoan-
one-celled organism that can live inside or outside a cell.
What is the only way to protect against a virus?
through vaccines.
Virus-
genetic molecules encased in a protein shell called capsid. Host cell are required for virus to reproduce. Antibiotics are ineffective against viruses.
Nucleus:
Hold DNA and directs cell activity
Mitochondrion:
takes energy from glucose in cells to use for cellular activity
Cytoplasm:
jelly like substance within a cell but not in the nucleus
Chloroplast:
contains chlorophyll used by green plants to make food.
Bacteria
organism that has adapted to every habitat. Some are helpful and some are harmful to humans most have no effect.
Graduated cylinder-
used for precise measurements
Spectroscope-
used to separate visible light into its component colors
Telescope
-used to see objects very far away and magnify them
Microscope-
used to magnify microscopic organisms
Drill and Practice-
learn skills but usually lower-order thinking.
Fax Machine-
transfers information via the phone lines
Multi-media presentations-
use of different kinds of technology and visuals to present findings.
Data base-
electronic file of massive amounts of information
Spreadsheet-
programs designed to collect, design, and analyze or manipulation numerical data.
Word-processing programs-
publish, write, edit and proofread their work
Simulations-
students have virtual experiences and learn results of different actions and variables in the program.
Tutorials-
useful as students work through the modules and learn concepts
Fair use doctrine:
allows limited reproduction of copyrighted materials for educational and research use.
*brevity, spontaneity and include copyright notice*
Cell Membrane:
controls movement of materials in and out of cell.
Ribosome:
Makes proteins from amino acids
Cell wall:
gives a structure to plant cells
describe this phases of plant cell metabolism: Diffusion
the movement of chemicals from high areas of concentration to low areas.
Tissue-
group of the same kind of cells.
Nervous system-
controls muscle function
Tendons-
attach muscles to bones
Ligaments-
hold bones together
Joint-
two bones come together
Human skeleton-
consists of over 200 bones
Skeletal system-
composed of bones, cartilage, and ligaments
Organ-
group of tissues working together
3 Types of muscles
1.striated (voluntary)
2. smooth (involuntary)
3. cardiac
Muscular system-
controls muscles and movement of the skeleton and movement within the organs.
Receptors-
nerve terminals that relay information back to the brain
Reflexes-
involuntary responses from the nervous system
Digestive system-
receives and processes foods: Includes mouth, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine.
Process of digestion?
Begins with mastication, or chewing, breaks down foods with saliva.The stomach chemically breaks down the food with gastric and intestinal juices.The smooth muscles push the food down the small intestine which absorbs nutrients.The large intestine which absorb water.
Excretory system-
eliminates waste from the body: Includes lungs, kidneys, bladders, large intestine, rectum, and skin.
Parts of excretory system and what they do?
Kidney- filter blood
 Bladder- holds waste, urine, until eliminated through the urethra.
 Large intestine absorbs water from food waste
 Rectum stores waste until eliminated
 Skin excretes waste through perspiration
Circulatory System-
internal transport of blood: Includes the heart, blood vessels, lymph vessels, blood and lymph.
Process of circulatory system?
Blood pumped to lungs where it acquires oxygen and back to the heart
Blood pumped to main artery, the aorta, and into smaller vessels then capillaries giving up oxygen and absorbing carbon dioxide.
Heart-
4 chambered muscle; upper chambers are atria; lower chambers ventricles
Immune system-
the way the body protects itself from foreign proteins and microorganisms. The body produces antibodies and lymphocytes to destroy invaders.
Respiratory System-
expansion and contraction of lungs
Process of respiratory system?
Oxygen enters tiny capillaries in lungs and combines with hemoglobin in red blood cells; then the capillaries carry the red blood cells to the tissues while the lungs exhale the carbon dioxide. Some animals use gills for respiration.
Reproductive System-
organs for the reproduction of life; different in males and females.
Two types of reproductive system?
sexual (sperm unites with egg)
asexual (one parent through fission- splitting of organism)
Nitrogen cycle-
the nitrogen in the air remains constant
Bacteria in soil and on roots of legumes take the nitrogen out of the air and change it into nitrogen materials that plants can use. Animals eat plants and excrete waste containing nitrogen.
Pollution-
materials that disrupt the ecosystem’s normal functioning.
Acid rain-
rain or precipitation that contains high levels of sulfuric and nitric acid that can pollute drinking water, erode building and hurt animal and plant life. Caused by volcanoes, forest fires and gas burning.
Ecosystem-
all living and nonliving things in the environment and how they interact.
Energy pyramid
shows the relationship of things in an ecosystem and how they rely on one another.
Ecology-
study of the relationship between living things.
Nonrenewable resources-
resources that can be depleted such as oil
Renewable resources-
can endure indefinitely under proper circumstances (vegetation)
Interdependence-
reliance of people on the world
Conservation is
is using natural areas without disrupting their ecosystems.
Parts of the scientific method?
 Posing a Question
 Research/Organize
 Form a Hypothesis/ Prediction
 Experiment
 Observe and Record Data
 Draw a Conclusion/ Inference
 Apply Knowledge
What is the scientific method?
A process of observation and analysis of observation; helps to develop an understanding of the world.
Data Representation-
Usually in graph or chart form, diagrams, tables
Variables-
Factors that influence an experiment
What must questions have to be testable?
Have specific variables that can be tested.
Inductive:
Inductive reasoning, moves from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. Inquiry or discovery lessons are inductive and promote higher-order thinking and creativity in problem solving.
Inquiry/ discovery -
learning by investigation and questioning
Deductive:
: Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific
Sometimes this is informally called a "top-down" approach. Students start with a rule or theory and apply it to the situation.
Name and describe this phase of plant cell metabolism : Osmosis-
diffusion of water across a membrane. If particles can’t pass through, they are stored in vacuoles until digestion of the particles. This engulfing process is called Phagocytosis
Name and describe this phase of plant cell metabolism: Photosynthesis
sunlight energy is converted to chemical energy and becomes biologically available to the plant. Occurs in the chloroplasts.
Name and describe this phase of plant cell metabolism: Fermentation
occurs in yeast cells in the absence of oxygen.
Name and describe this phase of plant cell metabolism: Respiration
release of sugars for use by cell.
Asexual plant reproduction-
Process of reproduction with one plant through cuttings
Sexual Plant Reproduction
involves seeds produced by two individual plants.
Germination
when a seed begins to grow as it gets enough water
Transpiration
the way that water passes out of the leaves and into the air as vapor.