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180 Cards in this Set

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In the 1900s
o believed in total state control of schools (democratic school system); imposing state control over local school districts
o wanted secularization of education with withdrawal of state aid from sectarian schools
o did not want parental involvement or other private interests (churches, local districts, etc.)
o wanted expert professionals to run the schools
o wanted to provide some form of state aid or taxation to benefit schools
o designed an administrative system for schools, led by a professional class of superintendents and principals.
o Involved in Eisenhower’s New Deal Literature regarding education
• Ellwood P. Cubberly
Protestant Minister in 1800s
o Favored total state control of schools
* Pushed for no private school funding
• Robert J. Breckenridge
o Leading figure in the Common School Movement
o Led battle to create a state board of education
o comprehensively surveyed the condition of the state’s schools, established training institutes for teachers, increased the length of the school year to six months, and gathered support for more funding for teacher salaries, books and school construction.
• Horace Mann
o Major advocate for Catholic educational rights in the Protestant vs. Catholic school battle.
• Boyd P. Jorgenson
Nineteenth Century
o Advocate for women’s education
o Promoted secondary education for women
• Catherine Beecher
First Archbishop of New York
o Advocate for demanding public funds for Catholic schools.
o Unsuccessful in obtaining taxpayer dollars for religious schools, but his struggles and the fiery debates between him and members of New York’s prominent Protestant establishment helped to set in motion the secularization of American public schools, a process that began in the 19th century, and continues to this day.
• John Joseph Hughes
o Wrote about educators being missionaries to their students
• Bernard Bailyn
o advocated vocational education for African Americans as a way to teach his community the manual skills that would help them work their way up the social ladder and improve their economic status.
• Booker T. Washington
o Introduced the notion the ideas should be grounded in experience.
o Argued that education should be based on a child’s psychological and physical development, as well as the world outside the classroom.
• John Dewey
o As head of the American Federation of Teachers, he became the most widely known educational figure in the history of organized labor. (Teacher’s Union)
• Albert Shanker
o She is credited with the development of the open classroom, individualized education, manipulative learning materials, teaching toys, and programmed instruction.
• Maria Montessori
o Advocate for equal right for Mexican-American Students
o instituted a series of sweeping changes including use of Spanish in the classroom, the hiring of many Spanish-speaking teachers and principals, the introduction of a new curriculum that stressed Latino history and achievements, and bilingual education.
• Jose Angel Gutiérrez
o Leader of the “back to basics” movement; his fact-based approach to education
• E.D. Hirsch, Jr.
Churches sponsored schools for their members’ children and charity schools for the children of the urban poor.
Religious schools
Usually found in New England, were town schools began by Puritans to train sons to read/write)
Latin grammar schools
Instruction offered by individual female teachers, usually in their homes. No regulations.
Dame Schools
Provided secondary education and offered a broader curriculum than Latin grammar schools before the creation of public high schools. Founded by “entrepreneurs” who were closely tied to their local communities. Supported by tuition, state grants, contributions of student labor, endowments, state lotteries, and even goods bartered for schooling.
Private academies
Early version of public school
The Common School Movement (1820-1865 led by Horace Mann)
Adult education, life-long learning in a fun atmosphere, Sunday School teachers’ camp.
The Chautaqua Institute
An experiment in communal life to eliminate class distinctions through practical education.
The New Harmony School
from early 1800’s until 1930s – focused on normal, everyday living and teacher training – for women and men.
Normal Schools
1st law in our country dealing with education
o This law was designed to create bible literate citizens who would thwart Satan's trickery. It required every town of 50 or more households to hire a teacher of reading and writing and provide a schoolhouse.
• Old Deluder Satan Act
o Supreme Court decision was critically important in preserving the right of nonpublic schools to exist, as well as the freedom of parents to send their children to such schools.
• Pierce vs. Society of Sisters of Holy Names of Jesus and Mary
o Demographics
 Common Schools (Society was culturally and religiously homogeneous (similar in nature)
o Educational Setting
 No talking, Corporal Punishment used, Instruction focused on memorization and recitation, children not encouraged to express opinions or ask questions
o Lifestyle
Teach religion, reading, writing, and literate citizenry
• New England Colonies – Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire
o Demographics
 Parochial Schools – schools that provide religious education in addition to conventional education
o Educational Setting
 Each different religious group formed their own school
o Lifestyle
 Students learned in their own language.
• Middle Colonies – New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania
o Demographics
 Formal education – luxury reserved for wealthy
 Private tutors
 Private schools
 Boarding schools
o Educational Setting
 Only Wealthy Educated
o Lifestyle
 Centered around Agriculture
• Southern Colonies – Maryland, Virginia, Carolinas, Georgia
Speared by the growth of the economy and immigration from Europe
• Idea of state control of education due to the fact that reformers did not trust values of immigrant parents.
• Goal of this movement was to promote the development of tax-supported public schools, to train teachers, and to establish state support and direction of these activities.
• Sought universal education – to teach common values and to secure social stability.
• Successful in establishing free, tax-supported public schools in every state and barred funding to private sectarian schools.
• Attempted to increase the number of underrepresented groups
• States created state education departments and appointed state superintendents of instruction
• Educators organized schools by grade level and standardized curriculum
• States improved teacher preparation
COMMON SCHOOL MOVEMENT (MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY)
o The National Education Association appointed a group to examine the high school curriculum and make recommendations about standards, programs, and methods.
o Committee concluded that all students (TRADE OR COLLEGE BOUND) needed the same content and teaching methods.
o Bias –
1. No High School Teacher or Parents had input.
2. The Committee members believed in Faculty psychology, the view that exercising the powers of the mind promoted learning.
3. Didn’t take into account the large number of non-English speaking immigrants and growing lower class
The Committee of Ten in 1892
A secondary school that attempts to meet the needs of all students by housing them together and providing curricular options (e.g., vocational or college-preparatory programs) geared toward a variety of student ability levels and interests.
• Evolved from Latin grammar schools and academies
• First seen as elitism and divisive to communities
COMPREHENSIVE HIGH SCHOOLS
• Because the Committee of 10 findings were considered to be bias, the National Education Association formed a new committee to help find the way for comprehensive high schools to better help students.
• Proposed the idea of comprehensive high schools with different tracks for different students
COMMISSION ON THE REORGANIZATION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION IN 1918
Communication and the exchange of information are vital in the relationship between parents and teachers. Name 4 intellectual ways that can negatively affect communication.
1. Reading Level - Parents can readily understand easy-to-read materials; more difficult materials may confuse some readers or be ignored.
2. Home Language - Language differences may cut parents off from important information and prevent them from sharing their knowledge with the teacher.
3. Jargon - Educational jargon without sufficient explanation can cause parental misunderstanding.
4. Vocabulary - Educators must watch the kind of vocabulary used in conversation (confusion.)
Communication and the exchange of information are vital in the relationship between parents and teachers. Name 3 ways physical things can impede access to information.
1. Geographic factors - such as sparse population or difficult terrain can make contact difficult.
2. Disability - Parents with disabilities face a greater challenge.
3. Programmatic Factors - limited contact between parents and eduator.
a principle generally accepted by the professional associations responsible for this document.
A standard
defined as the process of obtaining information that is used to make educational decisions about students, to give feedback to the student about his or her progress, strengths, and weaknesses, to judge instructional effectiveness and curricular adequacy, and to inform policy.
Assessment
_______________include, but are not limited to, formal and informal observation, qualitative analysis of pupil performance and products, paper-and-pencil tests, oral questioning, and analysis of student records.
The various assessment techniques
Name the 5 factors that make for an effective assessment.
1. Know what is to be assessed.
2. Make selection by relevance
3. Require variety of procedures
4. Requires awareness of assessment limitations
5. Knowledge is that assessments are a means to an end, not the end.
Name 7 items included in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act - IDEA.
1. A free appropriate public education (FAPE)
2. Least restrictive environment (LRE)
3. Individualized Education Program (IEP)
4. Procedural due process
5. Nondiscriminatory assessment
6. Parents law - mandates parents participation
7. Mandated schools to follow disabilities from birth to 21
What is another name for Public Law 94-142?
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act - IDEA.
Name 6 items that IEPs are required to address.
1. Present level of performance
2. Yearly goals and objectives
3. Educational services to be provided
4. Degree to which student will be in general education programs
5. Plans for beginning services and length of time
6. Yearly evaluations to see if objectives are being met
Name 6 procedural due process rights stated in IDEA.
1. Right to confidentiality of records
2. Right to examine records
3. Right to obtain independent evaluation
4. Right to receive written notifications to changes in child's educational plan
5. Right to impartial hearing if disagreements
6. Right to be represented by legal counsel
Legislation in the IDEA that requires parents to fully participate in the decision-making process that affect their child's education.
Parent's Law
Rewards that come from within oneself and are personally satisfying for emotional or intellectual reasons.
(An aspect of activity that people enjoy and therefore, find motivating.)
Intrinsic incentive
Rewards that come from outside oneself. Such as a good grade.
Extrinsic incentive
The discipline that examines values and offers principles that can be used to determine whether acts or right or wrong.
Ethics
What code provides guidance to teachers in ambiguous professional situations?
The National Education Associations Code of Ethics
What are 2 limitations of using existing laws as a basis for professional decision making?
1. Laws are purposely general.
2. Laws were created in response to problems of the past.
Name 2 federal influences on education.
1. Constitutional Amendments
2. Federal Laws
Name 3 state influences on education.
1. regulates teacher qualifications
2. regulates working conditions
3. regulates legal rights
4. creates department of education
is the process by which a state evaluates the credentials of prospective teachers to ensure that they have achieved satisfactory levels of teaching competence and are morally fit to work with youth.
o Requirements may include:
 A bachelor’s degree with a minimum number of credit hours in specified areas
 Screening for felony arrests or a history of abusing or molesting children.
 Passing of competency tests
Licensure
legal employment agreement between a teacher and a local school board.
Contract
occurs when a local chapter of a professional organization negotiates with a school district over the rights of the teachers and the conditions of employment.
o Teachers have a constitutional right to join a professional organization but cannot be forced to do so.
Collective Bargaining
a formal complaint against an employer alleging that a working condition, such as class size or a teaching assignment, is in violation of the teacher’s contract.
o Can’t be fired for filing one.
• Grievance
– A legal safeguard that provides job security by preventing teacher dismissal without cause.
o Designed to protect teachers from political or personal abuses and to ensure stability of the teaching force.
o Can only be fired for incompetence, immoral behavior, insubordination, or unprofessional conduct.
Tenure
right of teachers to choose both content and teaching methods based on their professional judgment.
• Academic Freedom
Federal laws designed to protect the intellectual property of authors, which includes printed matter, videos, computer software, and various other types of original work.
• Copyright Laws
policies that specify limitations in the use of copyrighted materials for educational purposes.
• Fair-use Guidelines
Means “in place of the parents” – a principle that requires teachers to use the same judgment and care as parents in protecting the children under their supervision.
• In Loco parentis
a teacher’s or other school employee’s failure to exercise sufficient care in protecting students from injury.
• Negligence
A civil wrong, independent of breach of contract, for which a court will provide relief in the form of damages.
Tort
Most school tort actions can be grouped into three categories:
1. Negligence
2. Intentional torts
3. Defamation
A process of socializing people so they adopt the dominant social norms and patterns of behavior.
Assimilation
term used to describe a variety of strategies schools use to accommodate cultural differences in teaching and learning.
Multicultural Education
What type of research
• Rely on measurable data
• Include variables
• Can be reported with statistics
Quantitative Research
What kind of research
• Rely on interviews
• Open ended surveys
• Field notes that include multiple perspectives and are reported as a narrative
Qualitative Research
What kind of research
• Based on a known factor, giving a likelihood of a predictable outcome
Predictive Research
What kind of research
• Describes data and characteristics
• Answers the who, what, when, where, and how
• Deals with everything that can be counted and studied
• Looks at how one variable affects another
Descriptive data
What kind of research
• Begins with a question on which the researcher has not taken a stance, and leads to a conclusion
Analytical Research
What type of source :
• Straight from the horses mouth
• If you do your own research
• If you quote someone else who did their own research
• Interviews
• Example: books written by the person about their own theory and research
Primary Source
What type of source
• An author who is interpreting or expanding on primary sources, or using them to prove their own point or support their own argument
• Articles/books discussing someone else’s research, telling how to implement it
• Textbooks
Secondary source
is technology used by individuals with disabilities in order to perform functions that might otherwise be difficult or impossible.
Assistive technology
What type of assessment?
• It’s part of the teacher’s plan
• Not statewide testing
• It happens during the normal routine of the class
• It includes multiple measures of assessment
• It may be written/created by the teacher, or by the publisher of the textbook, etc.
Systematic Assessment
• Using more than one method to measure student comprehension
• Aids valid assessment in a differentiated class
• Can include quizzes, chapter tests, orally questioning students during or after a lesson, student presentations or projects……
Multiple Measures of Assessment
What kind of test results show?
Compares students results against the norm. (Standardized test)
o Norm referenced test
What kind of test shows these results?

Information learning with no comparison.
Example: Average chapter test
o Criterion referenced
What type of assessment?
Given while students are forming their understanding of the subject. Inform your teaching – do students have it? MULTIPLE MEASURES OF ASSESSMENT
o Formative
What type of assessment?
The summary at the end. Chapter/Unit test at the end.
o Summative
What kind of test?
It diagnoses. When there seems to be a problem, it diagnoses.
• Diagnostic test
What kind of test?
Places student in level where they belong
• Placement test
What type of test?
think, think, think! Where students need to remember and process, math test, essays, short answer test
o Take more time to take
o Take more time to grade
• Complex-performance test
What type of test?
When the teacher or test-maker, provides the answer choices.
o Take less class time to take
o Takes less time to grade
o Takes students less thinking time
• Fixed-choice test
o These are similar to “learning styles”, but according to Gardner, they describe separate “abilities”
GARDNER’S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
Which one of Gardner's Multiple Intelligences?
– good with words, good writers and readers
 Linguistic
Which one of Gardner's Multiple Intelligences?
good with numbers
 Logical-mathematical
Which one of Gardner's Multiple Intelligences?
think 3 dimensionally (Like planets orbiting etc.)
Spatial
Which one of Gardner's Multiple Intelligences?
dancers, athletics
 Bodily-kinesthetic
Which one of Gardner's Multiple Intelligences?
see nature and classification
 Naturalistic
Which one of Gardner's Multiple Intelligences?
group leaders
 Interpersonal
Which one of Gardner's Multiple Intelligences?
be able to reflect, look inside themselves
 Intrapersonal
Which one of Gardner's Multiple Intelligences?
students have 6th sense (THESE IS SOMETIMES LEFT OFF LIST)
 Existential –
– Only when the lower needs are met is it possible to fully move on to the next level.
 Level One – Physiological Needs
 Level Two – Safety Needs
 Level Three – Love and Belongingness Needs
 Level Four – Self-esteem Needs
 Level Five – Self-actualization Needs
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Motivation
(STRAIGHT ROWS, EYES ON TEACHER TYPE OF INSTRUCTION)
(Names associated with this theory are John Watson and F. Skinner)
o Behavioral approaches to teaching generally involve the following:
• Breaking down the skills and information to be learned into small units.
• Checking student’s work regularly and providing feedback as well as encouragement (reinforcement).
• Teaching “out of context.” Behaviorists generally believe that students can be taught best when the focus is directly on the content to be taught. Behavioral instruction often takes the material out of context in which it will be used.
• Direct or “teacher centered” instruction. Lectures, tutorials, drills, demonstrations, and other forms of teacher controlled teaching tend to dominate behavioral classrooms.
• Use extrinsic rewards to get learning success.
Behaviorism Theory of Learning
(Includes Cooperative Learning)
o Curriculum emphasizes big concepts, beginning with the whole and expanding to include the parts.
o Pursuit of student questions and interests is valued.
o Materials include primary sources of material and manipulative materials.
o Learning is interactive, building on what the student already knows.
o Teachers have a dialogue with students, helping students construct their own knowledge.
o Teacher’s role is interactive, rooted in negotiation.
o Assessment includes student works, observations, and points of view, as well as test. Process is as important as product.
o Assessment includes students work, presentations, research projects, observations, and tests.
o Knowledge is seen as dynamic, ever changing with our experiences.
o Students work primarily in groups.
Constructivism Theory of Learning
CHILDS SELF-CONCEPT IS VERY IMPORTANT; SELF AWARENESS
o Student-centered teaching
o De-emphasize rigorous, performance-oriented, test-dominated approaches. Provide opportunity for success.
o Discovery learning
o Intrinsic rewards
o Teacher is seen as facilitator.
o Social and personal development is of upmost important.
o Open classrooms, class meetings, self-evaluation
Humanistic Learning
(SOCIAL LEARNING – MODELS, OBSERVING)
o Students observing other people.
o Describing the consequences of behavior. For effective modeling use must have: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation.
o Modeling new behaviors wanted in classroom
o Self-regulation techniques provide an effective method for improving student behavior.
Social Learning Theory
Hypothesized that people pass through 8 psychosocial stages in their lifetimes at each stage there are crisis.
Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson
o 1st stage of moral development (heteronomous morality “morality of constraint”) Judging morality of behavior on basis of consequences.
o 2nd stage of moral development (autonomous morality “morality of cooperation”) can cooperative with others to resolve conflicts
Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development
3 levels to distinguished how the child or adult defines what he or she perceive as correct or moral behavior.
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning
1. Foreclosure – Having prematurely established an identity on basis of parents’ choices.
2. Identity diffusion – Having no occupational direction or ideological commitment
3. Moratorium – Have begun to explore occupational and ideological choices but made no commitments
4. Identity achievement - Reached stage where they have met their own conscious, clear-cut decisions about occupation and ideology
James Marcia’s 4 Identity Statuses:
controlling your thinking processes and becoming more aware of your learning.)
metacognitive skills
– the moving from the specific to the general. Example: Arguments based on experience or observation.
Inductive Reasoning
begins with the general and ends with the specific. Example: Arguments based on laws, rules, or other widely accepted principles.
Deductive Reasoning
What is an IFSP?
Individual family service plan. It guides intervention services for children with disabilities and their families and contains information about which services are needed to aid a child's development. The IFSP is tailored to the concerns, priorities, and resources of each family. It usually addresses social skills, functional skills, communication or behavior modification.
What is FERPA?
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA or the Buckley Amendment) is a United States federal law.[1]

It gave students access to their education records, an opportunity to seek to have the records amended, and some control over the disclosure of information from the records. With several exceptions, schools must have a student's consent prior to the disclosure of education records. The law only applies to educational agencies and institutions that receive funding under a program administered by the U.S. Department of Education.
The tasks family members perform to meet families’ individual and collective needs are called
Family Functions
Name 7 family functions that are needed in a home with a child with a disability to create a stable family framework.
1. Affection
2. Self-Esteem
3. Economics
4. Daily Care
5. Socialization
6. Recreation
7. Education
One of the 7 interrelated family function activities (necessary in a home with a child with an exceptionality)

Definition - emotional commitments and display of _________________
Affection
One of the 7 interrelated family function activities (necessary in a home with a child with an exceptionality)

Definition - personal identity and self-worth, recognition of positive contributions
Self-esteem
One of the 7 interrelated family function activities (necessary in a home with a child with an exceptionality)

Definition - Production and utilization of family income
Economics
One of the 7 interrelated family function activities (necessary in a home with a child with an exceptionality)

Definition - Day-to-day survival needs (food, shelter, health care)
Daily Care
One of the 7 interrelated family function activities (necessary in a home with a child with an exceptionality)

Definition - Developing social skills, establishing interpersonal relationships
Socialization
One of the 7 interrelated family function activities (necessary in a home with a child with an exceptionality)

Definition - leisure time activities for both family and individuals
Recreation
One of the 7 interrelated family function activities (necessary in a home with a child with an exceptionality)

Definition - involvement in educational activities, career choices
Education
when service providers listen to parents and other significant persons and caregivers with understanding
active listening
it is the capacity of a rational individual to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Autonomy
in the context of education is a term that refers to the practice of educating students with special needs in regular classes during specific time periods based on their skills.[1] This means regular education classes are combined with special education classes.
Mainstreaming (Inclusion)
of or pertaining to the mental processes of perception, memory, judgment, and reasoning, as contrasted with emotional and volitional processes.
Cognitive
they are likely to believe that the consequences or outcomes of their behavior are the result of circumstances and events beyond their personal control, rather than their own efforts. (Seen in children with intellectual disabilities)
External locus of control
Which disability has the following learning characteristics?
1. Impaired cognitive functioning
* Attention deficits (difficulty focusing their attention, maintaining it, and selectively attending to relevant stimulit)
* deficit in memory
* difficulties with academic performance (reading especially)
* exhibit external locus of control, learned helplessness
* experience difficulty in transferring or generalizing knowledge acquired in one context to new or different settings
2. language development issues (Speech disorders)
Intellectual disabilities (Mental retardation)
What disability is can be represented with these social and behavior characteristics?

1. poor interpersonal skills
2. socially inappropriate behavior
Intellectual disability (Mental retardation)
What disability has the following causes?
1. recent brain research has begun to confirm the existence of a neurological basis
2. chemical factors
* alcohol
* drugs
* lead poisoning
3. medical factors
* premature births
* low birth weights
* childhood diabetes
* meningitis
* cardiac arrest
4. environmental factors
* larger number of students will be raised in single-family homes in poverty
* low socioeconomic status
* malnutrition
* no access to healthcare
Learning Disabilities (High incidence)
What disability has the following learning characteristics?
1. severe reading problems (dyslexia)
2. math disabilities
3. oral language deficits
4. written
5. metacognition
6. memory
Learning Disabilities (High Incidence)
What disability has the following social and behavioral characteristics?
1. difficulties perceiving, interpreting, and processing social info leads to inappropriate social responses and poor social problem solving skills
2. feelings of inadequecy (It's all by chance) poor self-concept
3. talk more than peers
4. more likely to use gestures and demonstrations
5. Be less able to respond the needs of the listener
6. hyperactive behaviors
7. coordination problems (motor skills)
Learning Disabilities (High Incidence)
How you think and monitor your thinking
Metacognition
What disability can be caused by the following?
1. Cultural and social factors
2. Biomedical or Physiological causes (Example - disorders from genetic and chromosomal abnormalities)
3. Toxins (Drugs/Alcohols)
4. Brain injuries during birth
5. Role of Environment
* poverty
* Health Problems due to nutritional deficiencies
* Inadequate health care
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation) High Incident
What disability has the following learning characteristics?
In the elementary years, ________usually causes these problems that have a direct impact on learning:

off-task behavior
incomplete or lost assignments
disorganization
sloppy work or messy handwriting
failure to follow directions
errors in accuracy
inconsistent performance
disruptive behavior or spacey, daydreaming behavior
social interaction difficulties.
ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (High Incident)
What disability has the following social/behavioral characteristics?
*behaviors are chronic over time
* constantly in motion
* difficulty in playing quiet
* inattention (easily distracted)
* hyperactivity
* impulsivity
* problems with behavior inhibition (can not control behavior responses)

low frustration level
mood instability
poor self-esteem
excessive, insistent demands that requests be met
temper outbursts
stubbornness
rejection by peers
oppositional behavior
antagonism and aggression
bossiness
ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (High Incident)
What disability is thought to be caused by?
* Neurological (Neurochemical difference in the brain of individuals with AD/HD
* No definite answer to the cause
ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (High Incident)
What disability has the following causes?

Biological disorders and diseases
Pathological family relationships
Undesirable experience at school
Negative cultural influences
Individual with Emotional or Behavioral Disorder (High Incident)
What disability has the following characteristics?
* individual typically score low-average range on measures of intelligence
* chronic school failure (significant academic deficits)
* language deficits (have problems with social use of language)
Individual with Emotional or Behavioral Disorder (High Incident)
Which disability shows the following behavioral or social characteristics?
* difficulty in building and maintaining relationship with peers and adults
* experience rejections because of aggressive behavior

Fighting
Hitting
Temper tantrums
Swearing
Bullying
Setting fires

Worries excessively
Depressed or sad
Hypersensitive
Prefers to be alone
Individual with Emotional or Behavioral Disorder (High Incident)
What ability is seen to be caused by genetic makeup and environmental stimulation?
Individuals who are seen to be gifted and talented
Which individuals show the following characteristics?
* ask probing questions
* have high verbal abilities
* self-confidence
* perform tasks ahead of normal schedule
* exceptional talent in one or more specific academic areas
* extreme creativity
Individuals who are seen to be gifted and talented
Explanations of learning that emphasis observable changes in behavior
Behavior learning theories
Explanations of learning that focus on mental process
cognitive learning theories
The teaching of a new skill or behavior by means of reinforcement for small steps toward the desired goal.
Shaping
Transfer of behaviors learned under one set of conditions to another
Generalization
Learning theory (observational learning) that emphasizes not only reinforcement but also the effects of cues on thought and of thought on action.
* 4 stages :
1. attentional phase - getting students to pay attention to the model. (Teacher gains attention by using cues, novelty, surprises, motivation)
2. Retention - Showing the students want they want them to model (Example: teacher writes an A - to teach letter A)
3. Reproduction - Students are asked to reproduce. (Students are asked to write an A).
4. Motivation - To keep students on track they must be motivated.
Social Learning Theory (Observational Learning)
Self-regulation (rewarding or punishing one's own behavior) is a part of what learning theory?
Social Learning Theory
The branch of philosophy that examines questions of how we come to know what we know. Involved in constructivism.

(HOW WE KNOW)
Epistemology
states we come to acquire knowledge by "constructing" it ourselves.
Constructivism
the branch of philosophy that considers what we know (WHAT WE KNOW?)
Metaphysics (Ontology)
Branch of philosophy that considers values and ethics
Axiology
Branch of philosophy that examines the process of deriving valid conclusions from basic principles
Logic
Theory of cognitive development that proposes a child's intellect, or cognitive abilities, progresses through 4 distinct stages. Each stage is characterized by the emergence of new abilities and ways of processing info. KNOWLEDGE COMES FROM ACTION
*Schemes
*Adaptation & Assimilation
*Accommodation
Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development
According to Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development, this is patterns of behavior or thinking.
Schemes
According to Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development, the process of adjusting schemes in new situations, using assimilation and accommodation.
Adaptation
According to Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development, the process of understanding a new object or event by using an existing scheme to learn about it.
Assimilation
According to Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development, when the old way doesn't work, modifying it in light of new information of a new experience.
Accommodation
According to _______Theory of Cognitive Development, the four stages are
1. sensorimotor stage
2. preoperational stage
3. Concrete operational
4. formal operational

HANDS ON LEARNING - Children should not be rushed
Piaget's
What is trying to be measured is called?
Constructs
Appropriateness of the interpretation and use made of the results.
Matter of degree - high, moderate, and low
MEASURING WHAT WE ARE ATTENDING TO MEASURE
Validity
Something you can count on.
Refer to the results obtained.
Reliability
These are types of what:
* difficult language
* upsetting scenarios in story problems
* Items that are too easy or too difficult
Construct Irrelevance
What theory of cognitive development
* No stages
* Two key ideas
1. Intellectual development can only be understood in terms of children's historical and cultural context.
2. Sign systems to determine development. Symbols that help people think, communicate, and solve problems.
3. Cognitive development is strongly linked to input from others.
Vygostsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
What theory of cognitive development
* No stages
* Two key ideas
1. Intellectual development can only be understood in terms of children's historical and cultural context.
2. Sign systems to determine development. Symbols that help people think, communicate, and solve problems.
3. Cognitive development is strongly linked to input from others.
Vygostsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
Vygostsky's Theory of Cognitive Development,
Definition - children incorporate the speech they are exposed to and use it to help themselves solve problems.
Private Speech
Vygostsky's Theory of Cognitive Development,
Definition - providing more support during early stages and decreasing it as the child is able to take on more responsibility
Scaffolding
Vygostsky's Theory of Cognitive Development,
The level of development immediately above the present level.
Zone of Proximal Development
Vygostsky's Theory of Cognitive Development,
definition - children work together to help each other.
Cooperative Learning
States people pass through 8 psychosocial stages. At each stage, there is a crisis to resolved.
Erik Erikson Psychosocial Theory
Probed children with questions of moral dilemmas,
Proposed that people pass through a series three levels of six stages of moral judgement or reasoning,

PRECONVENTIONAL
Stage 1 - behave to avoid being punished
Stage 2 - own desires and needs become important, aware of others interests
CONVENTIONAL,
Stage 3 - Golden Rule
Stage 4 - Society's rules replace those of peer group
POSTCONVENTIONAL - Only attained by few
Stage 5 - moral reasoning
Stage 6 - ethical decisions are self decided
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning
What is the most critical problem that results from using accomodations in standardized testing?
Accomodations change the nature of the measurement
Assessments that rate how throughly students mastered specific skills or areas of knowledge
Criterion-Referenced Tests
Assessments that compare the performance of one student against the population or the norm
Norm Referenced test
What kind of assessment determines student performance at the beginning of instruction?
Placement Assessment
What kind of assessment is used to monitor learning progress during instruction?
Formative Assessment
What kind of assessment is used to diagnose learning difficulties during instruction?
Diagnostic Assessment
What kind of assessment is used to assess achievement at the end of instruction?
Summative Assessment
Test items in which you can select from one or more possible answers, without requiring the scorer to interpret the response. Common on standardized tests.
Selected Response
Requires students to supply the answer rather than select.
Constructed Response
Woodcock Reading Mastery Exam measures what
READING ACHIEVEMENT
Eraut's major criticism of reflection
Sometimes decisions have to be made quickly and there is no time for reflection
Tendency to analyze oneself and ones thoughts and actions
Reflectivity
An adolescents premature establishment of an identity based on parental choices, not on his or her own
Foreclosure
It refers to a period when an individual does not have an established identity, nor is actively searching for one. In other words, it's a time when a person's identity remains unresolved, yet there is no identity crisis
Identity Diffusion
Adolescents experience with goals and values of THEIR own choosing, no definite commitments made, in the midst of identity crisis
Moratorium
Adolescents establishes an identity in which clear decisions about occupations and ideologies have been made
Indentity Achievement
Theory states that Individuals are often unaware of many of the factors that determine their emotions and behaviors, these unconscious factors may create unhappiness, sometimes in the form of recognizable symptoms and at other times troubling personality traits, etc.
Psychoanalytic Theory
The study of animal behavior with emphasis on the behavioral patterns that occur in natural environments; animals are born with a set of fixed action pattern imprinting
Ethology
What Theory?
1. Provides positive self-direction and independence
2. Develops the ability to take responsibiltiy for what is learned
3. Develops creativity
4. Curiosity
Humanistic View of Learning