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202 Cards in this Set

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A baseball player of the twentieth century; he hit a record 755 home runs in his major league career, which ran from 1954 to 1976. The previous record holder was Babe Ruth, who hit 714.
Henry (Hank) Aaron
The first woman to become secretary of state. The daughter of a Czech diplomat, she was born in Czechoslovakia but fled to England with her family when the Nazis invaded in 1939. (Three of her grandparents, all Jews, died in Nazi concentration camps.) She returned to Czechoslovakia with her family after the war but fled again when the communists took power. Coming to America, she held various government posts and taught international relations before her appointment as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations in 1993. President Bill Clinton appointed her to head the State Department in 1997.
Madeleine Albright
A tribe of Native Americans who live in the southwestern United States. Geronimo was a member of this tribe.
Words from the inaugural address of President John F. Kennedy, delivered in 1961.
Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country
The location of a failed attempt by Cuban exiles to invade Cuba in 1961. The invaders, numbering about fourteen hundred, had left after the Cuban Revolution and returned to overthrow the new Cuban leader, Fidel Castro; they were trained and equipped by the United States Central Intelligence Agency. The operation was a disaster for the invaders, most of whom were killed or taken prisoner. The Bay of Pigs incident is generally considered the most humiliating episode in the presidency of John F. Kennedy, who had approved the invasion.
Bay of Pigs
A group of prominent midwestern universities known for high academic standards and keen athletic competition. Nine of the ten are state universities: the universities of Illinois (at Urbana), Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin (at Madison); Michigan State University; Ohio State University; Indiana University; and Purdue University. Northwestern University is the sole private school.
Big Ten
A radical movement for Black Power that reached a peak of influence in the United States during the 1960s, partly under the leadership of Malcolm X. Members rejected Christianity as a religion of white people and embraced Islam. Like many other ___________s who took new names, the boxer Cassius Clay changed his name to Muhammad Ali to join the movement.
Black Muslims
Two outlaws, ___________ and _______________, who went on a two-year spree of murder and bank robbery in the 1930s in Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas before being killed in an ambush.
Bonnie and Clyde
A group of intellectuals and planners who act as advisers, especially to a government. The phrase is particularly associated with the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
brain trust
A political leader of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ______, claiming to be the candidate of the ordinary American, lost three presidential elections as the nominee of the Democratic party, although he gathered substantial votes in the South and West. At the 1896 Democratic national convention, he delivered the much-remembered “Cross of Gold” speech in favor of unlimited coinage of silver and against the gold standard. A fundamentalist in religion, ______ opposed the teaching of the theory of evolution in schools and assisted in the prosecution at the Scopes trial.
William Jennings Bryan
An American political leader of the late twentieth century; elected president as a Republican in 1988 after he pledged: “Read my lips; no new taxes.” Once in office, however, he reached an agreement with Congress to raise taxes. Despite this, ______’s popularity rose in the wake of American success in the Persian Gulf War, but then declined as the United States slipped into economic recession in 1991. He was defeated for reelection in 1992 by Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas.
George H. W. Bush
An explorer of the twentieth century; he was navigator on the first flight over the North Pole. He also made one of the first flights over the South Pole and went on several extended expeditions to Antarctica.
Richard E. Byrd
A political leader of the twentieth century; the president from 1977 to 1981. In 1976, ________ was a peanut farmer who had been a naval officer and the governor of Georgia; he stood outside the main power groups of the Democratic party. He gained the party’s nomination, however, and defeated President Gerald Ford in the election of 1976. As president, _______ brought the heads of government of Israel and Egypt together to sign a historic peace treaty in 1979, reestablishing diplomatic relations between their two countries (see Arab-Israeli conflict). He responded to an invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union in 1979 by putting an embargo on grain sales to the invader and by keeping the United States out of the 1980 summer Olympic Games, which were held in the Soviet Union. Many Americans found ________’s leadership too cautious, however, and blamed him for a lack of improvement in the economy. His most striking loss of popularity came when revolutionaries in Iran stormed the United States embassy there in 1979 and held several dozen Americans as hostages for over a year (see Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini). The Iranians agreed to release the hostages only in the last minutes of _________’s presidency in early 1981, after _________ had lost the election of 1980 to Ronald Reagan. After leaving the presidency, he visited several nations, including Haiti and North Korea, as a peacemaker. He also participated in projects to refurbish housing for the poor.
James Earl (Jimmy) Carter
Chief of Oregon’s Nez Perce Indians who led his people in the 1870s on a desperate attempt to reach Canada rather than submit to forcible settlement on a reservation. Forced to surrender to U.S. troops just south of the border, he reportedly stated: “Hear me my chiefs, I am tired: My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more.”
Chief Joseph
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment. The law was passed during a period of great strength for the civil rights movement, and President Lyndon Johnson persuaded many reluctant members of Congress to support the law.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
A lawyer and the wife of William Jefferson Clinton. She attended law school with her future husband, and after their marriage she was his indispensable ally during his rise in Arkansas politics. After Bill Clinton became president, he appointed her to head a national task force on health reform. She publicly stood by him amid various allegations of marital infidelities, including the Monica Lewinsky affair, and she actively supported candidates of the Democratic party during elections. In 2000 she was elected U.S. senator from New York.
Hillary Rodham Clinton
A baseball player of the early twentieth century. ________ long held the world record for runs batted in and stolen bases in a career in the major leagues. He still holds the record for lifetime batting average.
Ty Cobb
A political leader of the early twentieth century. A Republican, he rose to prominence as governor of Massachusetts when he broke a strike by policemen in Boston, saying, “There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, any time.” He was elected vice president under Warren Harding and became president in 1923 when Harding died. In 1924, he was elected on his own, but he declined to seek reelection in 1928; Herbert Hoover succeeded him in 1929. __________ worked to restrain the growth of government and especially to keep it from interfering with private enterprise; he once declared that “the business of America is business.”

‡ ________ was renowned for using few words; he announced his retirement from the presidency in one sentence: “I do not choose to run for president in 1928.”
Calvin Coolidge
An address by the presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan to the national convention of the Democratic party in 1896. Bryan criticized the gold standard and advocated inflating the currency by the free coinage of silver, a measure popular among the debt-ridden farmers whom Bryan championed. “You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns,” said Bryan; “You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.” The speech stirred the convention, and Bryan was nominated for president.
Cross of Gold speech
A mayor of Chicago in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. One of the last and toughest of the big-city political “bosses,” he ran a powerful political machine, repeatedly and easily gaining reelection. He was also given much of the credit for the victory of John F. Kennedy in the close presidential election of 1960; Kennedy won by only a few thousand votes in Illinois. In 1968, when demonstrators against involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War threatened to disrupt the Democratic national convention, meeting in Chicago, the Chicago police, with _______’s approval, responded with violence. An official investigation later described the response as a “police riot.” ______ died in 1976.

‡ _________’s organization also gave Chicago’s government a reputation for quick responses to problems; Chicago was called a “city that works.”
Richard Daley
A federal law intended to turn Native Americans into farmers and landowners by providing cooperating families with 160 acres of reservation land for farming or 320 acres for grazing. In the eyes of supporters, this law would “civilize” the Indians by weaning them from their nomadic life, by treating them as individuals rather than as members of their tribes, and by readying them for citizenship. Although generally well intentioned, the law undermined Indian culture, in part by restricting their hunting rights on former reservation lands. Much of the best reservation land eventually passed into the hands of whites.
Dawes Act of 1887
The great slowdown in the American economy, the worst in the country’s history, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early 1940s. Many banks and businesses failed, and millions of people lost their jobs.
Great Depression
Nickname for United States infantry soldiers who served in World War I.
Secretary of state under President Eisenhower, he was known for his moralism and militant anti-communism.
John Foster Dulles
A law officer of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He served as the United States marshal in Dodge City, Kansas, and took part in a famous gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Arizona, in 1881.
Wyatt Earp
An educator, author, and cooking expert of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. She wrote the first distinctively American cookbook, The Boston Cooking School Cook Book.
Fannie Farmer
A nickname given to young women in the 1920s who defied convention by refusing to use corsets, cutting their hair short, and wearing short skirts, as well as by behavior such as drinking and smoking in public.
Fourteen goals of the United States in the peace negotiations after World War I. President Woodrow Wilson announced the Fourteen Points to Congress in early 1918. They included public negotiations between nations, freedom of navigation, free trade, self-determination for several nations involved in the war, and the establishment of an association of nations to keep the peace. The “association of nations” Wilson mentioned became the League of Nations.
the Fourteen Points
An author and political activist of the twentieth century, who has worked for the extension of women’s rights. In 1963, _________ published The Feminine Mystique, a book that proved fundamental to the women’s movement of the 1960s and beyond. She was a founder of the National Organization for Women.
Betty Friedan
Jamaican-born black nationalist who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association in the 1920s to encourage self-help among blacks. Opposed to colonialism, _________ advocated black separatism and nationalism. The Black Star shipping line, which facilitated emigration of American blacks to Africa, was among his projects. He was eventually jailed for mail fraud and deported to Jamaica by the U.S. government, which feared his influence in the black community.
Marcus Garvey
A law passed in 1944 that provided educational and other benefits for people who had served in the armed forces in World War II. Benefits are still available to persons honorably discharged from the armed forces.
GI Bill
A political leader of the twentieth century. __________ represented Arizona for over thirty years in the Senate and was a leading spokesman for American conservatism. As the Republican nominee, he lost the presidential election of 1964 to President Lyndon Johnson.
Barry Goldwater
The name President Lyndon Johnson gave to his aims in domestic policy. The programs of the _______________ had several goals, including clean air and water, expanded educational opportunities, and the lessening of poverty and disease in the United States.
Great Society
A political leader of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, who served as president from 1921 to 1923. As Republican party candidate in the campaign of 1920, he described his goal as a return to “normalcy” after the ambitious foreign and domestic policies of the outgoing Democratic president, Woodrow Wilson; _________ strongly opposed the participation of the United States in the League of Nations. As Harding’s presidency went on, the corruption of some of the officials he appointed became increasingly evident; ________ died in office before the worst of the ________ scandals came to light.
Warren G. Harding
A frontier settler and United States marshal of the nineteenth century, known for his pursuit of some of the worst outlaws of the old West. Like his friend Buffalo Bill Cody, he was a rider for the Pony Express in his youth.
Wild Bill Hickok
A judge of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Holmes served on the Supreme Court from 1902 to 1932, retiring when past ninety. He was celebrated for his legal wisdom and frequently stood in the minority when the Court decided cases. He insisted on viewing the law as a social instrument rather than as a set of abstract principles. He delivered a famous opinion concerning freedom of speech, holding that it must be allowed except when it presents a “clear and present danger.”
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
The encampments of the poor and homeless that sprang up during the Great Depression. They were named with ironic intent after President Herbert Hoover, who was in office when the depression started.
A scandal in the administration of President Ronald Reagan, which came to light when it was revealed that in the mid-1980s the United States secretly arranged arms sales to Iran in return for promises of Iranian assistance in securing the release of Americans held hostage in Lebanon. Proceeds from the arms sales then were covertly and illegally funneled to the Contras, rebels fighting the Marxist Sandinista government in Nicaragua.
Iran-Contra Affair
An African-American clergyman and political leader of the twentieth century. _________, a leader in the civil rights movement, has energetically encouraged self-confidence in young people, especially blacks. He ran for president in the primaries of 1984 and 1988.
Jesse Jackson
The 1920s in the United States, a decade marked not only by the popularity of jazz, but also by attacks on convention in many areas of American life.
Jazz Age
A political leader of the nineteenth century. __________ was elected vice president in 1864 and became president when Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in 1865. _________ is one of two presidents to have been impeached (see impeachment); the House of Representatives charged him with illegally dismissing a government official. The Senate tried him, and __________ was acquitted by only one vote.
Andrew Johnson
An educator and author of the twentieth century. Though blind and deaf from an early age, she learned to read, write, and communicate with sign language.

‡ ______________ is often mentioned as an example of persistence and courage in the face of overwhelming handicaps.

‡ The play The Miracle Worker dramatizes ______________’s early education.
Helen Keller
A younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, who served as attorney general during his brother’s presidency and was his brother’s closest adviser. ____________ was a champion of the civil rights movement and a foe of organized crime. He was elected to the Senate after John Kennedy’s assassination. In 1968, while running for the presidential nomination of the Democratic party, he was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan, a Palestinian, evidently because of Kennedy’s position favoring Israel.
Robert Kennedy
An African-American clergyman and political leader of the twentieth century; the most prominent member of the civil rights movement. King became famous in the 1950s and 1960s through his promotion of nonviolent methods of opposition to segregation, such as boycotts of segregated city buses, or sit-ins at lunch counters that would not serve black people. His “Letter from Birmingham Jail” defended this kind of direct, nonviolent action as a way of forcing people to take notice of injustice. King helped organize the march on Washington in 1963 that drew hundreds of thousands of supporters of civil rights to Washington, D.C., for a mass rally. At this march, he described a possible future of racial harmony in his most famous speech, which had the refrain “I have a dream.” In 1964, he received the Nobel Prize for peace. King was assassinated by James Earl Ray in 1968. 1
‡ King was born January 15, 1929. A national holiday each January, Martin Luther King Day, commemorates his life.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
(1963) A letter that Martin Luther King, Jr., addressed to his fellow clergymen while he was in jail in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, after a nonviolent protest against racial segregation (see also sit-ins). King defended the apparent impatience of people in the civil rights movement, maintaining that without forceful actions like his, equal rights for black people would never be gained. King upheld the general use of nonviolent civil disobedience against unjust laws, saying that human rights must take precedence over such laws. He claimed that “one who breaks an unjust law must do it openly, lovingly”; such a person, King said, is actually showing respect for law, by insisting that laws be just.
"Letter from Birmingham Jail"
A political leader of the 1920s and 1930s who served as governor of Louisiana and represented that state in the Senate. He promised every family enough money for a home, car, radio, pension, and college education. A demagogue, Long dominated Louisiana’s politics and pushed aside opposition. He planned to run for president but was assassinated before he could do so.
‡ Long was nicknamed the “Kingfish.”
‡ Members of Long’s family played a prominent role in Louisiana and national politics for some time.
Huey Long
A general of the twentieth century, who commanded the forces of the Allies in the Pacific region in World War II. When Japanese forces were about to conquer the Philippines, MacArthur was forced to leave, but vowed, “I shall return.” He did return two years later and drove out the Japanese. After the final defeat of Japan, he supervised the occupation of that country by the Allies and helped revise the Japanese constitution. During the Korean War, he commanded troops of the United Nations but was removed as commander by President Harry S. Truman.
Douglas MacArthur
The code name for the effort to develop atomic bombs for the United States during World War II. The first controlled nuclear reaction took place in Chicago in 1942, and by 1945, bombs had been manufactured that used this chain reaction to produce great explosive force. The project was carried out in enormous secrecy. After a test explosion in July 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Manhattan Project
The opposition of many white leaders in the South to the decision of the Supreme Court in Brown versus Board of Education in 1954. The Court had declared racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional. The expression massive resistance was used in a letter signed by over a hundred members of Congress, calling on southerners to defy the Supreme Court’s ruling.
massive resistance
A political leader of the twentieth century, who, after representing South Dakota in the Senate, lost the presidential election of 1972 to President Richard Nixon. McGovern, a liberal Democrat, was an outspoken opponent of the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War.

‡ In the election of 1972, McGovern received majorities only in Massachusetts and in the District of Columbia.
George McGovern
A secretive right-wing movement composed of self-styled militia men who established encampments in sparsely populated areas, primarily in the western states, and whose philosophy mixed racism and anti-Semitism with conspiracy theories and hostility to the American government.
militia movement of the 1990s
A mass killing of helpless inhabitants of a village in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War, carried out in 1968 by United States troops under the command of Lieutenant William Calley. Calley was court-martialed and sentenced to life imprisonment, but he only served a few years before parole. The massacre, horrible in itself, became a symbol for those opposed to the war in Vietnam.
My Lai massacre
A group of government programs and policies established under President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s; the New Deal was designed to improve conditions for persons suffering in the Great Depression. The projects of the New Deal included the Social Security System, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Works Progress Administration.
‡ The New Deal remains controversial. Some have criticized it as too expensive and have called it an inadvisable expansion of federal control over the American economy. Others have insisted that the New Deal was an appropriate response to desperate conditions and produced programs of continuing value.
New Deal
The commander of the United States Pacific Fleet during World War II.
Admiral Chester Nimitz
A political leader of the twentieth century. A member of Congress in the late 1940s, Nixon came to national attention through his strong support for the investigation of the alleged communist Alger Hiss. He was elected vice president twice under President Dwight D. Eisenhower, but narrowly lost the presidential election of 1960 to John F. Kennedy. He ran for governor of California two years later, was defeated again, and left politics for several years to practice law in New York City. Nixon reemerged as the Republican presidential candidate in 1968 and defeated Hubert Humphrey and George Wallace in the election. The best-remembered events of his presidency were his visits to the People’s Republic of China and to the Soviet Union; a cease-fire in Vietnam and withdrawal of United States forces from that country; and the Watergate scandal, which led to his downfall. In 1974, under immediate threat of impeachment, he became the first president to resign from office. 1
‡ Nixon received the nickname “Tricky Dick” for his early reputation for deviousness. 2
‡ Nixon was later pardoned by President Gerald Ford and after some years reemerged as a commentator on foreign policy.
Richard Nixon
The first woman to serve on the Supreme Court, she was appointed by President Ronald Reagan in 1981.
Sandra Day O'Connor
A statement from the first inaugural address of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933. Roosevelt was speaking at one of the worst points of the Great Depression.
The only thing we have to fear is fear itself
A black seamstress from Montgomery, Alabama, who, in 1955, refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery city bus to a white person, as she was legally required to do. Her mistreatment after refusing to give up her seat led to a boycott of the Montgomery buses by supporters of equal rights for black people. This incident was the first major confrontation in the civil rights movement.
Rosa Parks
A major United States naval base in Hawaii that was attacked without warning by the Japanese air force on December 7, 1941, with great loss of American lives and ships. In asking Congress to declare war on Japan the next day, President Franklin D. Roosevelt described the day of the attack as “a date which will live in infamy.”
Pearl Harbor
A political leader and reformer of the twentieth century. After briefly serving at Jane Addams’s Hull House, she worked in various reform activities and government positions. In 1933 President Franklin D. Roosevelt made her the first woman to hold a cabinet position when he appointed her secretary of labor. She assisted in drafting much of the New Deal legislation, including that which created the Social Security System.
Frances Perkins
A case decided by the Supreme Court in the 1890s. The Court held that a state could require racial segregation in public facilities if the facilities offered the two races were equal. The Court’s requirement became known as the “separate but equal” doctrine. It was overturned by the Court in 1954 in Brown versus Board of Education.
Plessy versus Ferguson
A broad movement for educational reform in the twentieth century. Progressive education is principally associated with John Dewey, but it contains many different and often conflicting ideas. In general, progressive educators view existing schools as too rigid, formal, and detached from real life. They prefer informal classroom arrangements and informal relations between pupils and teachers. They also prefer that schools teach useful subjects (including occupations) and emphasize “learning by doing” rather than instruction purely from textbooks. Some place the developing personality of the child at the center of educational thinking and insist, “teach the child, not the subject.”
progressive education
Words attributed to William H. Vanderbilt, a railroad executive of the late nineteenth century. They were supposedly spoken to a newspaper reporter.
‡ “The public be damned” has often been recalled when business leaders have been accused of shirking responsibility toward the public.
The public be damned
The period after the Civil War in which the states formerly part of the Confederacy were brought back into the United States. During Reconstruction, the South was divided into military districts for the supervision of elections to set up new state governments. These governments often included carpetbaggers, as former officials of the Confederacy were not allowed to serve in them. The new state governments approved three amendments to the Constitution: the Thirteenth Amendment, which outlawed slavery; the Fourteenth Amendment, which had a provision keeping some former supporters of the Confederacy out of public office until Congress allowed them to serve; and the Fifteenth Amendment, which guaranteed voting rights for black men. Once a state approved the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments, it was to be readmitted to the United States and again represented in Congress. The official end of Reconstruction came in 1877, when the last troops were withdrawn from the South. 1
‡ The program established for Reconstruction, largely the work of Republicans in the North, was far more severe than what President Abraham Lincoln had proposed before his assassination. Large numbers of white southerners resented being kept out of the “healing” of the nation that Lincoln had called for and were unwilling to give up their former authority. Ill feeling by former Confederates during Reconstruction led to the formation of the Ku Klux Klan and a long-standing hatred among southerners for the Republican party.
A slogan of the Spanish-American War. The United States battleship Maine mysteriously exploded and sank in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, in 1898. Stirred up by the yellow press (see yellow journalism), the American public blamed the sinking on Spain, which then owned Cuba. President William McKinley, who had opposed war, yielded to public pressure and asked Congress to declare war.
Remember the Maine
An African-American athlete of the twentieth century. In 1947, he became the first black person to play baseball in the major leagues.
Jackie Robinson
The wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Her humanitarian and diplomatic efforts were known and respected all over the world. She represented the United States in the General Assembly of the United Nations from 1949 to 1952.
Eleanor Roosevelt
A move by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to increase the size of the Supreme Court and then bring in several new justices who would change the balance of opinion on the Court. Roosevelt proposed to pack the Court in the 1930s, when several conservative justices were inclined to declare parts of his program, the New Deal, unconstitutional. Congress would not allow the number of justices to be increased, and Roosevelt was criticized for trying to undermine the independence of the Court.
Roosevelt’s Court packing plan
The nickname of a volunteer group of cavalry led by Colonel Theodore Roosevelt in the Spanish-American War. They were famous for a victorious charge at the Battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba.
Rough Riders
The founder in the 1910s and 1920s of the birth control movement (she coined the term). Sanger overcame the initial hostility of the medical profession and combated laws that in most states prohibited contraception. She later headed the Planned Parenthood Federation.
Margaret Sanger
The most destructive attack of terrorism ever launched against the United States. On September 11, 2001, a group of Islamic terrorists, widely believed to be part of the Al Qaeda network, hijacked three commercial airliners in midair, took over the controls, and deliberately crashed them into the Pentagon and the twin towers of the World Trade Center (WTC). A total of 189 people who worked at the Pentagon, which suffered severe damage, were killed, and another sixty-four died on the airliner. Fire caused by the initial crash into the WTC led to the collapse of each tower, but not before hundreds of New York City firefighters and police had entered the towers to rescue victims. When the towers collapsed, many of them were killed, along with thousands of workers who had been trapped after the initial crashes on the towers’ upper floors. 1
Counting firefighters, police, tower workers, and passengers on the doomed airliners, the death toll at the WTC ran to over three thousand people. Another forty-four people died on a fourth hijacked airliner, which crashed in a field near Pittsburgh. The attacks provoked outrage not only in the United States, but also abroad, both because of their savagery and because roughly ten percent of those killed in the collapse of the twin towers were foreign nationals. 2
In response, President George W. Bush assembled an international coalition against terrorism. He received strong support from America’s traditional European allies—NATO, for example, officially declared the attacks an assault against all of its members—and from the Russian Federation, which had been battling Islamic separatists in Chechnya. Even China, which feared Islamic separatist movements in its far western provinces, gave verbal support to the campaign against terrorism. The Islamic world, in contrast, was much cooler. Nevertheless, Bush was able to secure from Pakistan’s government the right to use Pakistan as a base from which to attack Afghanistan, whose Taliban, it was believed, harbored Al Qaeda members and Osama bin Laden. American air strikes against the Taliban commenced three weeks after the September 11 attacks. 3
‡ In addition to the human carnage, the attacks severely crippled both the U.S. and foreign economies. For example, in the wake of the attacks, air travel plummeted and insurance companies faced enormous costs for the damage. 4
‡ Many Americans compared the attacks to Pearl Harbor, because they took an unprepared America by surprise.
September 11 attacks
A system of farming that developed in the South after the Civil War, when landowners, many of whom had formerly held slaves, lacked the cash to pay wages to farm laborers, many of whom were former slaves. The system called for dividing the crop into three shares—one for the landowner, one for the worker, and one for whoever provided seeds, fertilizer, and farm equipment.
A common name for the Dakota people, a tribe of Native Americans inhabiting the northern Great Plains in the nineteenth century. They were famed as warriors and frequently took up arms in the late nineteenth century to oppose the settlement of their hunting grounds and sacred places. In 1876, Sioux warriors, led by Chief Sitting Bull, and commanded in the field by Chief Crazy Horse, overwhelmed the United States cavalry at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. (See Custer’s last stand.) A group of Sioux under Chief Big Foot were massacred by United States troops at Wounded Knee in 1890.
A religious movement that arose in the United States in the late nineteenth century with the goal of making the Christian churches more responsive to social problems, such as poverty and prostitution. Leaders of the movement argued that Jesus’ message was as much about social reform as about individual approaches to salvation.
Social Gospel
The practice of appointing applicants to public offices as a reward for their loyalty to the political party in power. The term comes from a statement by a senator in the 1830s: “To the victor belong the spoils.” Reform of the system commenced in the 1880s with the introduction of merit as the basis of appointment to office. (See James A. Garfield, machine politics, and patronage.)
spoils system
A political leader of the twentieth century, who served as governor of Illinois and as the United States ambassador to the United Nations. The Cuban missile crisis occurred during his ambassadorship. He was nominated for president twice by the Democratic party against Dwight D. Eisenhower, in 1952 and 1956, and lost both times.

‡ Stevenson was known for his wit and as a “thinking” rather than a crowd-pleasing candidate.
Adlai E. Stevenson
A political leader of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. A Republican, Taft was president between 1909 and 1913. At the beginning of his presidency, he stayed close to the policies of Theodore Roosevelt, who had been president before him. Later, however, he turned to more conservative measures, such as a high protective tariff, and he lost popularity. In foreign policy, Taft advocated dollar diplomacy. He came in third in the election of 1912, running as a Republican, behind Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt. In the 1920s, Taft served as chief justice of the Supreme Court.
William Howard Taft
A series of major attacks by communist forces in the Vietnam War. Early in 1968, Vietnamese communist troops seized and briefly held some major cities at the time of the lunar new year, or Tet. The Tet offensive, a turning point in the war, damaged the hopes of United States officials that the combined forces of the United States and South Vietnam could win.
Tet offensive
A train route across the United States, finished in 1869. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. The two lines met in Utah. The Central Pacific laborers were predominantly Chinese, and the Union Pacific laborers predominantly Irish. Both groups often worked under harsh conditions.
transcontinental railroad
A New York City political leader, known as Boss Tweed, who in the late 1860s ran a network of corrupt city officials called the Tweed Ring. Under Tweed, city officials extorted kickbacks from contractors and others doing business with the city. His name is synonymous with municipal corruption.
William Marcy "Boss" Tweed
A political leader of the twentieth century. As governor of Alabama in the 1960s, he resisted integration and promised to “stand at the schoolhouse door” to bar black people from admission to the University of Alabama. The National Guard eventually forced him to back down. In 1968, he was nominated for president by a third party, the American Independent party, and came in third, behind Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey. In 1972, he ran for president again, but was shot and paralyzed by a would-be assassin during the campaign. Wallace presented himself as a populist (see populism), who championed poor and middle-income whites against blacks and wealthy, liberal whites. In a remarkable reversal of positions, he endorsed integration in the 1980s and was again elected governor of Alabama for four years.
George Wallace
A political leader and judge of the twentieth century. Warren was governor of California before being named chief justice of the Supreme Court in 1953, and he served on the Court until 1969. His time as chief justice was marked by boldness in interpreting the Constitution; the “Warren Court” often brought the Constitution to the support of the disadvantaged. (See Brown versus Board of Education and Miranda decision). Warren also led a government commission investigating the assassination of President John F. Kennedy
Earl Warren
A group of violent disturbances in Watts, a largely black section of Los Angeles, in 1965. Over thirty people died in the Watts riots, which were the first of several serious clashes between black people and police in the late 1960s.

‡ Los Angeles was the scene of another riot in 1992, triggered by the acquittal of white police officers accused of beating an African-American man named Rodney King.
Watts riots
A movement to secure legal, economic, and social equality for women, also called the feminist movement. It has its roots in the nineteenth-century women’s movement, which sought, among other things, to secure property rights and suffrage for women. The modern feminist movement, often said to have been galvanized by the publication of Betty Friedan’s book The Feminine Mystique, began in the 1960s and advocates equal pay for equal work, improved day care arrangements, and preservation of abortion rights.
women's movement
Words used by President Woodrow Wilson in 1917 to justify his call for a declaration of war on Germany. The words implied that Germany’s militarism threatened democracy everywhere.
The world must be made safe for democracy
A creek in South Dakota where United States soldiers killed large numbers of Dakota Native Americans—Sioux—in 1890. The Sioux, under Chief Big Foot, had been resisting settlement of the area and had fled to Montana, but United States troops brought them back to South Dakota for detention. As the soldiers were disarming the warriors in an army camp at Wounded Knee, a rifle shot alarmed the soldiers, and fighting broke out in which more than two hundred Sioux were killed, including women and children. The massacre was the last major military conflict between whites and Native Americans.
Wounded Knee
A social reformer of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. She founded a settlement house, Hull House, in Chicago, and also worked for peace and for women’s rights. In 1931, she won the Nobel Prize for peace.
Jane Addams
An African-American boxer of the twentieth century, who was world champion in the heavyweight class for several years between 1964 and 1979. He was known in his boxing career for his flamboyant personality and aggressive self-promotion, as well as for his superior boxing ability and style. His boxing strategy, he said, was to “float like a butterfly and sting like a bee.” A Black Muslim, Ali was originally named Cassius Clay. After he refused for reasons of conscience to serve in the armed forces in the 1960s, several boxing associations revoked his title as world champion, but he regained it later. During his boxing career he was extremely popular in Africa, and after his retirement he traveled there as a goodwill ambassador.
Muhammad Ali
The space vehicle that carried three American astronauts to the moon and back in July 1969. The vehicle consisted of a command module, which stayed in lunar orbit, and a lunar module, which carried two of the three crewmen to a safe landing on the moon.

‡ On becoming the first person to set foot on the moon, Neil Armstrong declared: “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”

‡ The other members of the crew were Buzz Aldrin, the second person to walk on the moon, and Michael Collins.
Apollo 11
An important ruling on affirmative action given by the Supreme Court in 1978. Allan Bakke, a white man, was denied admission to a medical school that had admitted black candidates with weaker academic credentials. Bakke contended that he was a victim of racial discrimination. The Court ruled that Bakke had been illegally denied admission to the medical school, but also that medical schools were entitled to consider race as a factor in admissions. The Court thus upheld the general principle of affirmative action.
Bakke decision
An African-American educator and civil rights leader who in 1904 founded a school for girls that later became part of Bethune-Cookman College. In the late 1930s and early 1940s she held an administrative position under the New Deal. In 1949 she founded the National Council of Negro Women, which opposed the poll tax and racial discrimination and which promoted the teaching of black history in the public schools.
Mary McLeod Bethune
An outlaw of the late nineteenth century in New Mexico, who claimed to have killed over twenty people; he was gunned down himself at age twenty-one. His real name is uncertain.
Billy the Kid
A militant Black Power organization founded in the 1960s by Huey Newton and others. Newton proclaimed: “We make the statement, quoting from Chairman Mao, that Political Power comes through the Barrel of a Gun.”
Black Panthers
A woman charged with the ax murder of her father and stepmother in the 1890s in Fall River, Massachusetts. A jury found her not guilty. The crime has never been solved.
Lizzie Borden
A judge of the twentieth century, he served on the Supreme Court from 1916 to 1939. Brandeis believed that economic and social facts had to take precedence over legal theory. He was the first Jew to serve on the Supreme Court.
Louis D. Brandeis
William F. Cody, a frontier settler, scout, and soldier of the nineteenth century. He was involved in several military actions against Native Americans and later turned to entertainment, founding the celebrated “Wild West Show.”
Buffalo Bill
The son of former president George H. W. Bush, he was elected governor of Texas in 1994. In 2000, he secured the Republican nomination for the presidency and narrowly defeated Al Gore, the Democratic party nominee, in an election marred by charges of irregularities in the counting of votes, especially in Florida. Although Gore won more popular votes, Bush prevailed in the Electoral College after a Supreme Court decision resolved the Florida controversy in his favor. 1
In the wake of the September 11 attacks (2001), the Bush adminstration identified Osama bin Laden as the mastermind behind the terror. With support from U.S. allies, Bush ordered a deployment of U.S. forces in the Persian Gulf and in nations adjoining Afghanistan, where bin Laden apparently ran training camps for terrorists with the backing of the Taliban. Air strikes led to the rout of the Taliban in November, though operations continued and bin Laden appeared to have evaded capture. On the domestic front, Bush oversaw successive reduction of interest rates to stimulate the sluggish U.S. economy.
George W. Bush
A leader of organized crime in Chicago in the late 1920s, involved in gambling, the illegal sale of alcohol, and prostitution. He was sent to prison in the 1930s for income tax evasion.
Al Capone
An African-American scientist and agricultural innovator of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Carver aided the economy of the South by developing hundreds of industrial uses for crops such as the peanut and the sweet potato.

‡ Carver, who was born to slave parents, was the first black scientist to gain nationwide prominence.
George Washington Carver
Laws passed over many decades, beginning in the 1830s, by state and federal governments, forbidding the employment of children and young teenagers, except at certain carefully specified jobs. Child labor was regularly condemned in the nineteenth century by reformers and authors (see David Copperfield and Oliver Twist), but many businesses insisted that the Constitution protected their liberty to hire workers of any age. In several cases in the early twentieth century, the Supreme Court agreed, declaring federal child labor laws unconstitutional. Eventually, in the late 1930s, the federal Fair Labor Standards Act was upheld by the Court. This law greatly restricts the employment of children under eighteen in manufacturing jobs.
child labor laws
The national effort made by black people and their supporters in the 1950s and 1960s to eliminate segregation and gain equal rights. The first large episode in the movement, a boycott of the city buses in Montgomery, Alabama, was touched off by the refusal of one black woman, Rosa Parks, to give up her seat on a bus to a white person. A number of sit-ins and similar demonstrations followed. A high point of the civil rights movement was a rally by hundreds of thousands in Washington, D.C., in 1963, at which a leader of the movement, Martin Luther King, Jr., gave his “I have a dream” speech. The federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed after large demonstrations in Selma, Alabama, which drew some violent responses. The Fair Housing Act, prohibiting discrimination by race in housing, was passed in 1968. 1
After such legislative victories, the civil rights movement shifted emphasis toward education and changing the attitudes of white people. Some civil rights supporters turned toward militant movements (see Black Power), and several riots erupted in the late 1960s over racial questions (see Watts riots). The Bakke decision of 1978 guardedly endorsed affirmative action.
civil rights movement
An American political leader of the late twentieth century. A Democrat, he handily defeated President George H. W. Bush’s bid for reelection in 1992. Clinton, a former Rhodes scholar, had served as governor of Arkansas. Although harried by questions about his character during his presidential campaign, Clinton proved adept at reconciling the conservative and liberal wings of the Democratic party and establishing himself as the candidate of change. He was elected to a second term in 1996. His second term was plagued by charges of sexual misconduct, which led to the Clinton impeachment. Nevertheless, he retained great popularity, partly because of a booming economy.
William Jefferson Clinton
A leading organization in the civil rights movement. CORE launched the Freedom Riders and came under the influence of the Black Power philosophy.
Congress on Racial Equality
An enormous decrease in stock prices on the stock exchanges of Wall Street in late October 1929. This crash began the Great Depression.
Crash of 1929
A confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cuba; one of the “hottest” periods of the cold war. The Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, placed Soviet military missiles in Cuba, which had come under Soviet influence after the success of the Cuban Revolution three years earlier. President John F. Kennedy of the United States set up a naval blockade of Cuba and insisted that Khrushchev remove the missiles. Khrushchev did so.
Cuban missile crisis
A lawyer and author of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He was known for his defense of unpopular causes and persons, including Eugene V. Debs. Darrow was defense attorney in the Scopes trial.
Clarence Darrow
A political leader of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Debs was five times the presidential candidate of the Socialist party. He was imprisoned in the 1890s for illegally encouraging a railway strike; Clarence Darrow was his defense attorney. During World War I, he was imprisoned again, this time for his criticism of the war.
Eugene V. Debs
A philosopher and educational reformer of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. As a philosopher, Dewey followed pragmatism, and its practical orientation carried over into his educational ideas, which became the basis of progressive education.
John Dewey
A justice of the Supreme Court from 1939 to 1975. Douglas was a committed liberal, who urged that the Court take bold steps in the application of the Constitution.

‡ Douglas served for thirty-six years, longer than any other justice in the history of the Court.
William O. Douglas
A parched region of the Great Plains, including parts of Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Texas, where a combination of drought and soil erosion created enormous dust storms in the 1930s. The novel The Grapes of Wrath, by John Steinbeck, describes the plight of the “Okies” and “Arkies” uprooted by the drought and forced to migrate to California.
Dust Bowl
A general and political leader of the twentieth century. As supreme commander in Europe of the forces of the Allies during World War II, he directed the invasion of Normandy on D-Day and led in the overthrow of the Nazi government of Germany. He later organized the military forces of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. In 1952, his popularity was so high that both the Democrats and the Republicans wanted him for a presidential candidate; he chose the Republicans. “I Like Ike” was a popular slogan of his campaigns. He defeated the Democratic candidate, Adlai Stevenson, in both 1952 and 1956. In office, he negotiated the end of the Korean War and generally pursued moderate policies. His years as president were marked by increasing prosperity at home, although the cold war with the Soviet Union continued abroad. Richard Nixon was Eisenhower’s vice president.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
A politician of the twentieth century. She served as a representative in Congress and was nominated by the Democratic party for vice president in 1984; the presidential candidate was Walter Mondale. Ferraro was the first woman to run for the vice presidency on a major party ticket.
Geraldine Ferraro
A political leader of the twentieth century who served as president from 1974 to 1977. A prominent Republican in Congress, Ford was named vice president in 1973, after the resignation of Spiro Agnew. He succeeded to the presidency in 1974, when President Richard Nixon was forced to resign. Ford sought to pursue moderate policies and to communicate better with Congress and with the public than Nixon had. He refused approval, however, of a large number of bills passed by Congress, which was controlled by Democrats, saying they were too costly. He pardoned Nixon in a widely criticized effort to end division over the Watergate scandal. Ford lost the presidency to James Earl Carter in the 1976 election.
Gerald Ford
A judge of the twentieth century, he served on the Supreme Court from 1939 to 1962. Frankfurter believed in judicial restraint, the idea that judges should decide cases and not try to shape public policy (or “legislate”) from the bench.
Felix Frankfurter
Scholarships for the exchange of students and scholars between the United States and other nations, funded originally by the sale of United States military surplus after World War II. The program was conceived by Senator J. William Fulbright.
Fulbright scholarships
A baseball player of the early twentieth century. A teammate of Babe Ruth, Gehrig set a record for the major leagues, not broken until 1999, by playing in over two thousand consecutive games.

‡ While still in his thirties, Gehrig died from a rare disease of the nerves, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, that has become commonly known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease.”
Lou Gehrig
A nickname for United States soldiers, particularly during World War II. GI is short for government issue, a descriptive term for supplies distributed by the government.
GI Joe
A labor leader of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, he cofounded the American Federation of Labor (AFL), an organization composed of skilled workers in craft unions. In the 1930s the AFL was challenged by the rise of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), an organization whose member unions were composed of all workers, unskilled as well as skilled, in specific industries such as mining or automobiles. The two organizations later merged.
Samuel Gompers
A 1965 Supreme Court decision that overturned an old Connecticut law (1879) that made it illegal to use or disseminate information about contraception. The Court found that the law invaded the constitutional right of privacy.
Griswold versus Connecticut
Major incidents of corruption in government that occurred while Warren Harding was president in the early 1920s. The most notable, called the Teapot Dome scandal, involved the lease of federally owned oil reserve lands to private interests, in return for bribes. Several high officials, including the secretary of the interior, were ultimately convicted for their part in the affair. Although not personally implicated in the wrongdoing, Harding had clearly made a bad choice of associates and was shaken by the scandals.
Harding scandals
An official in the Department of State who, in 1948, was accused by a former communist, Whittaker Chambers, of having been a secret agent for the Soviet Union during the 1930s. Hiss denied the charge but was later convicted of lying under oath and was imprisoned. 1
‡ The Hiss case is still controversial. Some have argued that Hiss was the victim of hysteria against communists. Others contend that Chambers was telling the truth. Chambers’s accusation against Hiss was made before a committee of the House of Representatives.

‡ Congressman Richard Nixon, later president, became known nationwide through his part in the investigation of the charge.
Alger Hiss
A political leader of the twentieth century, who was president from 1929 to 1933. Hoover became famous for his direction of relief work in Europe after World War I. He had been president only a few months when the Great Depression began (see stock market Crash of 1929, stock market, and Hoovervilles). A Republican, he was reluctant to use the power of the federal government against the Depression. Hoover tried to persuade voters that private enterprise could turn the economy around, but he lost the election of 1932 to Franklin D. Roosevelt. In the late 1940s, he was head of a commission to make the federal government more efficient.
Herbert Hoover
A phrase from the most celebrated speech by Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered at a large rally in Washington, D.C., in 1963 to supporters of the civil rights movement. King stressed the importance of nonviolent resistance and vividly painted his vision of a better future for people of all colors in the United States.
I have a dream
A group of eight old, distinguished colleges and universities in the East, known for their ivy-covered brick buildings. The members of the Ivy League are Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, Princeton, and Yale Universities; Dartmouth College; and the University of Pennsylvania.
Ivy League
An outlaw of the nineteenth century. Jesse, his brother Frank, and their gang committed many daring robberies of banks and trains, especially in the 1870s. After a reward had been offered for James’s capture, one of his own gang shot him in the back and collected the money.

‡ Jesse James is the subject of many folk legends and songs.
Jesse James
A descriptive term for the segregation of institutions, businesses, hotels, restaurants, and the like. It also refers to the laws that required racial segregation.
Jim Crow
A Democratic party political leader of the twentieth century, who was president from 1963 to 1969. Johnson rose to power in the Senate. He was elected vice president in 1960, running with John F. Kennedy, and became president after Kennedy was assassinated. Known for his extraordinary political skill, Johnson guided many of Kennedy’s New Frontier projects through Congress, including the Voting Rights Act of 1965. He also started his own set of domestic programs, known as the Great Society, which included the War on Poverty. In 1965, Johnson began a sharp increase in American military involvement in the Vietnam War, which took resources away from the Great Society and was opposed by many of his fellow Democrats. Greatly frustrated by his difficulties over the war in Vietnam, he declined to run for reelection in 1968.

‡ Johnson, a Texan (see Texas), often tried to project an image of a blustery, sometimes coarse, rancher.
Lyndon Baines Johnson
The younger brother of John F. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy. Kennedy, a Democrat, has represented Massachusetts in the Senate since 1963 and is a leading liberal. He has been mentioned over the years as a possible candidate for president but has never been nominated. The Chappaquiddick incident has affected many people’s view of him.
Edward Kennedy
A controversial incident in 1970, in which unarmed students demonstrating against United States involvement in the Vietnam War were fired on by panicky troops of the National Guard. Four students were killed and nine wounded. The shooting occurred at Kent State University in Ohio. The troops were subsequently absolved of responsibility by the government, but their action turned many moderates against the Vietnam War and the Richard Nixon administration.
Kent State
A scholar and government official of the twentieth century. As an adviser and later secretary of state under President Richard Nixon, Kissinger prepared for the opening of diplomatic relations between the United States and the People’s Republic of China. During the Vietnam War, he helped Nixon plan and execute a secret bombing of Cambodia, and his negotiations with the government of North Vietnam helped produce a cease-fire in that war. He was cowinner of the Nobel Prize for peace in 1973.
Henry Kissinger
A political leader of the twentieth century. A beloved mayor of New York City in the 1930s and 1940s, La Guardia worked to free the city of corruption and began a great number of construction projects. La Guardia was called the “Little Flower” (fiorello is Italian for “little flower”). 1
‡ La Guardia is especially remembered for reading the comic strips from out-of-town newspapers over the radio during a newspaper strike in New York.
Fiorello La Guardia
An aviator of the twentieth century. In 1927, __________ flew alone from New York City to Paris across the Atlantic Ocean, traveling nonstop in The Spirit of St. Louis. His was the first nonstop flight across the Atlantic and the first solo flight across the ocean. Young, and engaging in manner, he became an instant hero, nicknamed the “Lone Eagle” and “Lucky Lindy.” After World War II had begun but before the United States entered the war, he urged American neutrality and was heavily criticized for his stand.

‡ The kidnaping and murder of __________’s infant son in 1932 gained attention around the world and led to the strengthening of federal laws against kidnaping.
Charles A Lindbergh
An African-American boxer of the twentieth century, who held the world championship in the heavyweight class from 1937 to 1949.

‡ _______ was called the “Brown Bomber” and was a source of racial pride for America’s blacks.
Joe Louis
A criminal organization that originated in Sicily and was brought to the United States by Italian immigrants in the late nineteenth century. The _____ is also called the Syndicate, the Mob, and the Cosa Nostra (Our Thing). The _____ built its power through extortion (forcing tradesmen and shopkeepers to buy _____ protection against destruction) and by dominating the bootlegging industry (the illegal production and distribution of liquor) during Prohibition. Members of the _____ often lead outwardly respectable lives and maintain a variety of legitimate businesses as a front, or cover, for their criminal activities, which include extortion, gambling, and narcotics distribution.
A soldier and diplomat of the twentieth century. He was a leading planner of strategy for the Allies in World War II. _______ served as secretary of state from 1947 to 1949, during which time he put forth the _______ Plan. In 1953, he received the Nobel Prize for peace.
George C. Marshall
A political leader of the twentieth century. _______, a Republican, represented Wisconsin in the Senate from 1947 until his death in 1957. He led an effort to identify communists who, he said, had infiltrated the federal government by the hundreds, although he never supplied any of their names. One of ________’s tactics was to establish guilt by association: to brand as communists people who merely had known a communist or who had agreed with the communists on some issue such as racial equality. His critics called him a demagogue who exploited people’s concerns about communism. He was also feared, however, because of the mass of information he had put together on people in the government. The Senate censured him in 1954, saying that his actions were “contrary to senatorial traditions.”
Joseph R. McCarthy
A political leader of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; he was president from 1897 to 1901. ________, a Republican, led the United States during the Spanish-American War, although he at first opposed taking action against Spain. The United States annexed the Philippines in his presidency. ________ was assassinated by an anarchist (see anarchism) shortly after his reelection.

‡ _________’s presidency is often remembered as a time of rising American jingoism and imperialism.
William McKinley
Authors who specialize in exposing corruption in business, government, and elsewhere, especially those who were active at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. Some famous _________s were Ida M. Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens, and Upton Sinclair. President Theodore Roosevelt is credited with giving them their name.
A social reformer of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, who argued forcefully for abstinence from alcohol. Known for taking direct action, she and her followers often used hatchets to smash beer kegs and liquor bottles in saloons.
Carry Nation
A slogan used by President John F. Kennedy to describe his goals and policies. Kennedy maintained that, like the Americans of the frontier in the nineteenth century, Americans of the twentieth century had to rise to new challenges, such as achieving equality of opportunity for all.
New Frontier
A word used by President Warren Harding to describe the calm political and social order to which he wished to return the United States after the idealism and commotion of the presidency of Woodrow Wilson.

‡ _________ has been used as a general term for the political climate in the United States in the early 1920s.
The destruction of a federal office building in ___________ in 1995 by a truck loaded with explosives; the blast killed 168 people. Timothy McVeigh, a former U.S. soldier, and two conspirators were convicted of the crime; McVeigh was executed.

‡ Many Americans initially assumed that this act of terrorism was the work of Arabs in retaliation for U.S. support of Israel and were shocked to learn that the perpetrators were Americans. McVeigh and his conspirators had vague ties to the militia movement of the 1990s.
Oklahoma City Bombing
The presumed assassin of President John F. Kennedy. _______ allegedly shot Kennedy from a high window of a building in Dallas on November 22, 1963, as Kennedy rode down the street in an open car. ______ was captured the day of the assassination but was never tried; two days after Kennedy’s death, as ______ was being moved by police, a nightclub owner from Dallas, Jack Ruby, shot and killed him. A government commission led by Chief Justice Earl Warren concluded later that ______, though active in communist causes, was not part of a conspiracy to kill Kennedy. Many have questioned the findings of the commission.
Lee Harvey Oswald
A general in World War II, known for his expertise at warfare using tanks and other vehicles. He led operations in north Africa and in the Battle of the Bulge. A few months after the end of the war, he was fatally injured in a car accident in Germany.

‡ ______ was called “Old Blood and Guts”; his stern, demanding, and effective leadership was legendary.
George Patton
An explorer of the Arctic in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The claim that he and his team were the first people to reach the North Pole, in 1909, is now doubted.
Robert E. Peary
A twentieth-century businessman and politician. _______ founded the Electronic Data Systems Corporation in Dallas in 1962, became extremely wealthy, and in 1992 ran for president of the United States as an independent. He ran again in 1996 as the candidate of the Reform party, although his strongest showing was in 1992, when he received nineteen percent of the popular vote.

‡ _______’s stunning rise in 1992 is widely attributed to voter dissatisfaction with “politics as usual.”
H. Ross Perot
A third-party movement that sprang up in the 1890s and drew support especially from disgruntled farmers. The ________ were particularly known for advocating the unlimited coinage of silver. The party endorsed William Jennings Bryan, a champion of free silver, in the presidential election of 1896.
Populist Party
A movement for reform that occurred roughly between 1900 and 1920. _________ typically held that irresponsible actions by the rich were corrupting both public and private life. They called for measures such as trust busting, the regulation of railroads, provisions for the people to vote on laws themselves through referendum, the election of the Senate by the people rather than by state legislatures, and a graduated income tax (one in which higher tax rates are applied to higher incomes). The ________ were able to get much of their program passed into law. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson were associated with the movement.
Progressive movement
A suffragist and pacifist (see pacifism), ______ in 1917 became the first woman to serve in Congress. She has the distinction of being the only member of Congress to vote against American entry into both World Wars.
Jeanette Rankin
The rounding up and deportation of several hundred immigrants of radical political views by the federal government in 1919 and 1920. This “scare” was caused by fears of subversion by communists in the United States after the Russian Revolution.
Red Scare
One of the two major political parties in the United States. The party began in 1854 (see under “American History to 1865”); Abraham Lincoln, elected in 1860, was the first _______ president. During Reconstruction, many ________s were eager to punish the South for its former slaveholding and for its secession from the United States. The northern _________s, for example, supported carpetbaggers in southern governments. After Reconstruction, the _________s favored a high protective tariff and were generally considered the defenders of northeastern and business interests. The party supported the Spanish-American War and the expansion of United States territory overseas. Some _________s were part of the Progressive movement of the early twentieth century. In the 1920s, the party reestablished its reputation for supporting business and as being wary of any expansion of the place of government in national life. This characterization is still a reasonably accurate, if simplistic, description of basic __________ views. Since Lincoln, the _________ presidents have been Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush.
Republican party
A political leader of the twentieth century, and a grandson of John D. Rockefeller. He was governor of New York from 1957 to 1971 and sought the Republican nomination for president several times. _____________ was known as a moderate or liberal Republican. He served as vice president under President Gerald Ford.
Nelson Rockefeller
A political leader of the twentieth century. ___________ was president from 1933 to 1945, longer than anyone else in American history; he was elected four times. _________, a Democrat who had been governor of New York, defeated President Herbert Hoover in the election of 1932. He took office at one of the worst points in the Great Depression but told the American public, “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” The early part of his presidency is remembered for the New Deal, a group of government programs designed to reverse the devastating effects of the Depression. He used fireside chats over the radio to build public support for his policies. In the later years of his presidency, he attempted to support the Allies in World War II without bringing the United States into the war. At this time, he made his speech announcing the Four Freedoms. After the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor, the United States entered the war. Roosevelt began the Manhattan Project, which produced the atomic bomb, a weapon that after his death brought a quick but highly controversial end to the war. Near the war’s end, ___________ negotiated the Yalta agreement with Britain and the Soviet Union. He died a few weeks before Germany surrendered and before the end of the war with Japan.

‡ __________’s appearance seemed designed to produce confidence in a nation discouraged by economic trials. He was frequently portrayed as sticking out his chin, grinning, and smoking a cigarette in a holder. He had suffered an attack of poliomyelitis when he was in his thirties, and for the rest of his life he could not walk unassisted. Photographers were therefore careful not to show him below the waist.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
The oldest and most famous of the “bowl games”—college football games held after the regular college football season between teams that are invited on the basis of their record in the regular season. The _____________ game is played in Pasadena, California, on New Year’s Day, and is preceded by the Tournament of Roses Parade of floats adorned with roses.
Rose Bowl
A baseball player of the early twentieth century, known for hitting home runs. He hit sixty home runs in 1927, a record for a 154-game season that stood until the late twentieth century. ______ supposedly once pointed to a spot in the seats where he would hit his next home run, and then proceeded to hit the ball there.
Babe Ruth
The trial of John Scopes, a high school teacher in Tennessee, for teaching the theory of evolution in violation of state law. The trial was held in 1925, with eminent lawyers on both sides—William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution and Clarence Darrow for the defense. Although Scopes was convicted, he was given a nominal fine, and the outcome was widely seen as a victory for Darrow.

‡ At the time, many saw the Scopes trial as a sign of deep conflict between science and religion.
Scopes Trial
Social and cultural centers established by reformers in slum areas of American cities during the 1890s and the early 1900s. Jane Addams founded the most famous ________________, in Chicago. (See Progressive movement.)

‡ _________________s attracted idealistic college graduates eager to learn how the poor lived and to improve the condition of the poor.
settlement houses
A federal law passed in 1890 that committed the American government to opposing monopolies. The law prohibits contracts, combinations, or conspiracies “in the restraint of trade or commerce.” Under the authority of the ___________________, the federal government initiated suits against the Standard Oil Company and the American Tobacco Company. (See trust busting.)
Sherman Antitrust Act
A form of nonviolent protest, employed during the 1960s in the civil rights movement and later in the movement against the Vietnam War. In a ________, demonstrators occupy a place open to the public, such as a racially segregated (see segregation) lunch counter or bus station, and then refuse to leave. ________s were designed to provoke arrest and thereby gain attention for the demonstrators’ cause.

‡ The civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., defended such tactics as _______s in his “Letter from Birmingham Jail.”
A war between Spain and the United States, fought in 1898. The war began as an intervention by the United States on behalf of Cuba. Accounts of Spanish mistreatment of Cuban natives had aroused much resentment in the United States, a resentment encouraged by the yellow press (see yellow journalism). The incident that led most directly to the war was the explosion of the United States battleship Maine in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, an incident for which many Americans blamed Spain (see Remember the Maine). The United States won the war easily. The best-remembered incidents in the ____________________ were the charge of the Rough Riders, led by Theodore Roosevelt, in the Battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba, and the Battle of Manila Bay in the Philippines, at which Admiral George Dewey said, “You may fire when you are ready, Gridley.” The United States acquired Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines in the war and gained temporary control over Cuba.

‡ The victory of the United States in the _________________ made the country a world power, with territories spread across the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Hawaii, which had been an independent kingdom, was annexed by the United States in the same period.
Spanish-American War
A reformer and feminist who joined with Lucretia Mott in issuing the call for the first women’s rights convention in America, which was held at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848. __________ later worked in close partnership with Susan B. Anthony for women’s suffrage.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A disturbance that grew out of a police raid on the ________ Inn, a popular hang-out for gays in Manhattan’s Greenwich Village in 1969. Such raids long had been routine, but this one provoked a riot as the crowd fought back. The riot led to the formation of the Gay Liberation Front and to a new level of solidarity among homosexuals.
Stonewall Riot
A major law concerning labor, passed by Congress in 1947. President Harry S. Truman vetoed it, but it became law by a two-thirds vote of Congress. It marked a reversal of the pro-labor policies pursued under the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. For example, the law prohibited a list of “unfair” labor practices and restricted the political activities of labor unions.
Taft-Hartley Act
An athlete of the twentieth century, known for his ability in several sports. A Native American, he was a leading college football player and also the best performer in track and field events at the 1912 Olympic Games.
Jim Thorpe
A political leader of the twentieth century. A Democrat, ______ was president from 1945 to 1953. In 1944, after representing Missouri in the Senate, ______ was elected vice president under President Franklin D. Roosevelt and became president when Roosevelt died. He led the nation in the final months of World War II and made the decision to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. _______ enthusiastically supported the United Nations and put forward the Marshall Plan to aid the recovery of Europe after the war. He sent American troops to support the United Nations in the Korean War, and, in a controversial move, removed General Douglas MacArthur from his command in Korea.

‡ _______’s homespun, often feisty style of leadership made him a symbol of no-nonsense Middle America. People often encouraged him, following his own preferences in vocabulary, with the words “Give ’em hell, Harry.” A sign on his desk read “The buck stops here.” He was also fond of the saying, “If you can’t stand the heat, get out of the kitchen.”

‡ _________ gained a surprise victory in the presidential election of 1948 over the Republican candidate, Thomas E. Dewey. On the day of the election, several commentators had confidently asserted that ________ could not win, and the Chicago Tribune had gone to press with a huge headline reading “Dewey Defeats ________.” ________ discussed these errors with great relish the next day.
Harry S. Truman
A war in Southeast Asia, in which the United States fought in the 1960s and 1970s. The war was waged from 1954 to 1975 between communist North Vietnam and noncommunist South Vietnam, two parts of what was once the French colony of Indochina. Vietnamese communists attempted to take over the South, both by invasion from the North and by guerrilla warfare conducted within the South by the Viet Cong. Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy sent increasing numbers of American military advisers to South Vietnam in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Kennedy’s successor, President Lyndon Johnson, increased American military support greatly, until half a million United States soldiers were in Vietnam. 1
American goals in Vietnam proved difficult to achieve, and the communists’ Tet offensive was a severe setback. Reports of atrocities committed by both sides in the war disturbed many Americans (see My Lai massacre). Eventually, President Richard Nixon decreased American troop strength and sent his secretary of state, Henry Kissinger, to negotiate a cease-fire with North Vietnam. American troops were withdrawn in 1973, and South Vietnam was completely taken over by communist forces in 1975. 2
‡ The involvement of the United States in the war was extremely controversial. Some supported it wholeheartedly; others opposed it in mass demonstrations and by refusing to serve in the American armed forces (see draft). Still others seemed to rely on the government to decide the best course of action (see silent majority). 3
‡ A large memorial (see Vietnam Memorial) bearing the names of all members of the United States armed services who died in the Vietnam War is in Washington, D.C.
Vietnam War
A statement attributed to General William Tecumseh Sherman, a leader of the Union army in the Civil War. Sherman supposedly said this several years after the war, in an address to a group of cadets.
War is hell
An African-American educator of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, who headed Tuskegee Institute, a college for African-Americans in Alabama. ___________ urged African-Americans to concentrate on economic gains rather than on the pursuit of social and political equality with whites. The best known of his many books is Up from Slavery.
Booker T. Washington
The best-known song of the civil rights movement. It contains these words: “Deep in my heart I do believe / That we shall overcome some day.”
"We Shall Overcome"
Popular name of Eldrick Woods, a golfer who in 1997 set three Masters tournament records: he won by the fewest strokes ever (18-under-par 270 for four rounds), beat the runner-up by twelve strokes, and became at twenty-one the youngest man ever to win. He then went on to win many other titles in a sport traditionally dominated by whites.
Tiger Woods
A series of baseball games held each October between the champions of the two major baseball leagues, the American League and the National League.
World Series
Inflammatory, irresponsible reporting by newspapers. The phrase arose during the 1890s, when some American newspapers, particularly those run by William Randolph Hearst, worked to incite hatred of Spain, thereby contributing to the start of the Spanish-American War. Newspapers that practice _______________ are called yellow press.
yellow journalism
A political leader of the twentieth century. Agnew was elected vice president in 1968 and 1972 as the running mate of Richard Nixon. He attacked opponents of the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War, calling them “an effete corps of impudent snobs” and “nattering nabobs of negativism.” In 1973 Agnew pleaded nolo contendere to charges of income tax evasion and resigned from office.
Spiro Agnew
A reformer of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, known especially for her advocacy of women’s suffrage. She was also active in the cause of abolitionism before the Civil War.
Susan B. Anthony
An African-American tennis player who rose to fame in a sport previously dominated by whites. Ashe won many championships, including the U.S. Open and Wimbledon. He died in 1993 of AIDS, which he contracted from a blood transfusion. He is honored by a statue on Monument Avenue in Richmond, Virginia.
Arthur Ashe
A reformer and nurse of the nineteenth century, who founded the American Red Cross in the 1880s. She had organized nursing care for Union soldiers during the Civil War.
Clara Barton
International negotiations backed by the threat of force. The phrase comes from a proverb quoted by Theodore Roosevelt, who said that the United States should “Speak softly and carry a big stick.”
big stick diplomacy
A judge of the twentieth century; he served on the Supreme Court from 1937 to 1971. Black was a strong defender of the civil liberties of the individual against intrusion by the state.
Hugo Black
A movement that grew out of the civil rights movement in the 1960s. Black Power calls for independent development of political and social institutions for black people and emphasizes pride in black culture. In varying degrees, Black Power advocates called for the exclusion of whites from black civil rights organizations. Stokely Carmichael, one of the leaders of the movement and the head of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), stated: “I am not going to beg the white man for anything I deserve. I’m going to take it.”
Black Power
A general of the twentieth century. _____________ commanded the United States ground forces in the liberation of France and the invasion of Germany in World War II.
Omar Bradley
A case regarding school desegregation, decided by the Supreme Court in 1954. The Court ruled that segregation in public schools is prohibited by the Constitution. The decision ruled out “separate but equal” educational systems for blacks and whites, which many localities said they were providing. The Court departed from tradition by using arguments from sociology to show that separate educational systems were unequal by their very nature. 1
‡ The Brown decision had an enormous effect on education throughout the country, not only in places where segregated schools were established by law, but also on school systems in which there was de facto segregation. The federal government, in the years that followed, required many city school systems to readjust school boundaries so that individual schools would have a mixed racial population.
Brown versus Board of Education
An African-American diplomat and prominent official of the United Nations, ________ won the Nobel Prize for peace in 1950 for negotiating an armistice between Israelis and Arabs.
Ralph Bunche
A statement made by President Calvin Coolidge in the 1920s.

‡ Coolidge’s words are often mentioned as typical of the overconfidence in the American economy that preceded the Great Depression.
The business of America is Business.
Northerners who went to the South after the Civil War to take part in Reconstruction governments, when persons who had supported the Confederacy were not allowed to hold public office (see Fourteenth Amendment). Some of them arrived, according to legend, carrying only one carpetbag, which symbolized their lack of permanent interest in the place they pretended to serve.

‡ _______________ is still a general term for nonresident politicians who exploit their districts.
An automobile accident in 1969 that greatly affected the career of Senator Edward (Ted) Kennedy of Massachusetts. A woman on Kennedy’s staff drowned at Chappaquiddick Island, off the Massachusetts coast, after a car that Kennedy had been driving, and in which she had been riding, went off a bridge. Kennedy survived, but delayed informing the police, and has never provided a full explanation of the incident. Afterward, many voters lost confidence in Kennedy, who had been considered a strong possibility to be nominated by the Democratic party for president.
Chappaquiddick incident
A federal law passed in response to complaints by workers on the West Coast that competition from Chinese immigrants was driving down their wages and threatening white “racial purity.” It suspended Chinese immigration for ten years and declared Chinese immigrants ineligible for naturalization as American citizens. The law was renewed in 1892 for another ten years, and in 1902 Chinese immigration was permanently banned. Chinese immigrants did not become eligible for citizenship until 1943.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
A Democratic party political leader of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries who was president from 1885 to 1889 and again from 1893 to 1897—the only president ever to serve nonconsecutive terms. ___________’s presidencies were marked by his fight against corruption in the federal government and by his efforts to solve national financial problems.
Grover Cleveland
During his second term, President William Jefferson Clinton was accused of having perjured himself when he denied having a sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky, an intern with the federal government, and of having attempted to suborn the testimony of a witness. The House of Representatives voted to impeach Clinton, despite charges that the impeachment proceedings were politically motivated. In 1999, Clinton was tried and acquitted by the Senate.
Clinton impeachment
A policy aimed at controlling the spread of communism around the world, developed in the administration of President Harry S. Truman. The formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949 was an important step in the development of ____________.
A Sioux chief of the nineteenth century. ______________ was one of the leaders of the Native American forces at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876.
Crazy Horse
The defeat of Colonel George A. Custer and his cavalry detachment by a large force of Native Americans at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876. Custer had been pursuing a group of Sioux, led by Sitting Bull, who had risen in arms against settlement of the country. Custer foolishly underestimated the size and ability of the Sioux forces, who were supported by Cheyenne warriors. Custer and all of the soldiers in his column were killed.
Custer's last stand
A description by President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the day of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor—December 7, 1941. Roosevelt was addressing Congress, asking it to declare war on Japan.
A date which will live in infamy
One of the two major political parties in the United States; the Democrats. The origins of the Democrats are in the Democratic-Republican party, organized by Thomas Jefferson in the late eighteenth century; the first president elected simply as a Democrat was Andrew Jackson. Always strong in the South, the party was severely damaged by secession, the Civil War, and Reconstruction, and did not produce a winning presidential candidate between 1861 and 1885, when Grover Cleveland was elected. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, in contrast to the Republicans, the Democrats tended to be the party of the South and West, opposed to the interests of business and the Northeast. Woodrow Wilson, the next Democratic president, was part of the Progressive movement. In the period of the New Deal, in the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Democratic party reached enormous strength among labor union members, minority groups, and middle-income people. The Democratic presidents since Roosevelt have been Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, James Earl Carter, and William Jefferson Clinton.

‡ Since the New Deal, Democrats have emphasized the role of the federal government in promoting social, economic, and political opportunities for all citizens. They generally support a tax system that places a greater burden on the rich and large corporations, and they prefer spending on social programs to spending on defense. Today most blacks, along with Jews, liberals, and labor unions, support the party, which since the 1930s has been strong in major cities. The Democrats’ strength in the white South, its strongest base before 1950, has slipped significantly, and in the 1970s and 1980s many blue-collar workers shifted to the Republican party.

‡ Under President Clinton, the Democratic Party shed some of its New Deal legacies in order to win back white working-class and middle-class voters lost to the Republicans.

‡ The Democrats’ party symbol is the donkey.
Democratic party
A notorious bank robber of the early twentieth century, who escaped from prison twice. _____________ was finally gunned down by agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1934, outside a movie theater in Chicago.
John Dillinger
A black author and teacher of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. A radical thinker on racial questions, he helped to found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). __________ criticized the position of Booker T. Washington that blacks should accept their inferior status in American society and “accommodate” to white people. Later in his life, _________ joined the American Communist party. His best-known book is The Souls of Black Folk, a collection of essays.
W.E.B. DuBois
An aviator of the twentieth century. ___________ was the first woman to pilot an airplane across the Atlantic Ocean. She disappeared in a flight over the Pacific Ocean in 1937.
Amelia Earhart
An island in the harbor of New York City. The chief immigration station of the United States was on _______________ from 1892 to 1943, a time when millions of people, especially from Europe, came to the United States.

‡ ______________ lies near the Statue of Liberty, which made an impressive sight for people approaching the United States for the first time.

‡ 1990 marked the opening of the ______________ Immigration Museum.
Ellis Island
A series of informal radio addresses given by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s. In his _____________s, Roosevelt sought to explain his policies to the American public and to calm fears about the Great Depression.
fireside chats
Four kinds of freedom mentioned by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in a speech in 1941 as worth fighting for: freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. Roosevelt spoke of the Four Freedoms before the United States entered World War II. He was presenting the war as a struggle for freedom and calling for aid to the Allies.
Four Freedoms
A group of northern idealists active in the civil rights movement. The _____________, who included both blacks and whites, rode buses into the South in the early 1960s in order to challenge racial segregation. _______________ were regularly attacked by mobs of angry whites and received often belated protection from federal officers.
Freedom Riders
A Republican party political leader of the nineteenth century, who served as president in 1881. After only a few months in office, he was assassinated by a man who had been angered by not having received a public job under the spoils system. ___________’s assassination gave momentum to the drive to abandon the spoils system.
James A. Garfield
An Apache leader of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. A brave and unrelenting warrior, __________ was among the last to lead Native Americans against white settlers. He took to farming at the end of his life.