Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/129

Click to flip

129 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In what way did the French and Indian War result in the American Revolution?
The American Revolution was a response to high taxes (which were imposed even though a lack thereof was promised) resulting from the debt of the English after the French and Indain War.
Why did the British want Louisiana from the French?
The trade of beaver fur was very profitable.
What was Pitt's Promise?
The american colonies would not have to pay for the french and indian war.
What was the proclamation of 1763 and why was it important?
The proclamation of 1763 said that even though the British had won most of Louisiana, american colnists could not settle to the west of the appalacians. Americans were upset because they wanted this land and thought they deserved it for having helped the british in the war to win it.
What was the Stamp Act (Years, description, importance)? The Townshend Duties (Years, description, importance)?
Stamp Act: 1765-1766; a tax on all things printed; the first unifier of the country, people from all over the country were unified in a boycot against it.

The Townshend Duties: 1767-1773; a tax on all imported items, including paper, tea, glass, and lead; continued the unification of the colonies.
What is a boycott?
Protesting something (usually price) by not buying something.
What is the importance of the Boston Massacre?
Through Paul Revere's famous embellishment of the events, many american colonists were turned against the British.
What was the tea act?
After the Townshend Duties were abolished, the tax on tea was still held in the tea act along with the rights for the Eastern India tea company to go around the middle man.
What was the purpose of the Boston Tea Party?
To raise the price of tea which had fallen after the Tea Act which got rid of the vendor so that the boycott on tea could be preserved.
How many crates of tea were dropped into the Bay of Boston?
342 (If you got that right and your not kendra your a weirdo)
Who was Samuel Adams?
A member of the sons of liberty, he was instrumental in the boston tea party as well as boycotting the stamp act and townshend duties.
What were the intolerable acts?
1)Blockade of the port of Boston
2)Forbidance of any self government
3)Requirement to allow soldiers to stay in homes.
Why did the first Continental Congress convine?
They wanted to gain representation in the british parliament.
Who was General Thomas Gage?
A British general and commander in chief of the North American forces during the early days of the American Revolution.
What happened at the battles of lexington and concord?
The British tried to seize american munitions and arms stored in concord.On the way they met a group of minutemen in lexington where they were defeated. Once they got to concord, the british were very succesful and won both the battle and the arms.
What was the olive branch petition?
A last ditch effort to preserve peace made by the second continental congress.
What happened at the battle of bunker hill?
(June 16, 1775)the british attacked strategic points that the colonists held, and although they were repetedly repelled and many british died, when the british navy came to help, the colonists lost their positions and the battle.
Why was Thomas Paine's common sense so important?
It convinced many Colnists that the only way to get what they wanted was through independance.
When and why did the british evacuate boston?
March 17, 1776. Because Washington had arrived in Boston along with cannons which could attack the british ships.
Second Continental Congress
1775, olive branch petition, declaration of independance.
What are the three "inalianable rights" that all people have according to the declaration?
Life, liberty, and the persuit of happiness.
What are the people of a contry obligated to do if its government is tyranical according to the declaration?
Make a new government.
Who was Thomas Jefferson?
The third President of the United States, principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and an influential Founding Father of the United States.
Why was persuit of happiness included in the declaration of independance instead of property as a right of all people?
Jefferson could not justify slavery and say that all men have the right to property.
What is Deism?
A religion in which god has created the world with certain rules and does not intervene except for enforcing those rules.
What happened at the battle of long island?
The colonial army was massacred and a low point for the American Revolution came about. (summer 1776)
What happened at the battle of trenton?
Washington and his army attacked the hessian encampment in trenton christmas of (1776) and won a critical battle for colonial morale.
What happened at the battle of saratoga?
To avoid massacre, the british general Burgoyne, had to surrender. This was a decisive victory because it convinced teh French that they schould help the americans.
What was the importance of the alliegence of the french and americans?
The combination of the american army's size and the french navy allowed for the americans to ultimately win independance.
Who was Lord Cornwallis?
The british commander who offered the surrender of the british troops at the battle of yorktown.
What happened at the battle of yorktown?
The american army split the british army into 2 parts, and laid seige to the one in yorktown. The french prevented the british navy from intervening. The americans forced the final surrender of british troops in this battle. (1781)
What is the treaty of paris of 1783?
The peace act, ending the american revolution.
What were the terms of the treaty of paris of 1783?
1)British recognize Americans as sovereign nation.
2)Borders between America, Britain, and Spain.
3)Americans gain fishing rights off canada.
What were the articles of the confederation?
the primitive version of the constitution which established the states in a more independant way than the constituion.
What crisis was caused by the articles of the confederation and why?
Inflation was very high and the country was bankrupt. The government could not make money or levy taxes.
Why did the articles of the confederation take so long to approve?
Small states wanted bigger states to give up their claims of western land because they felt intimidated.
What was the land ordinance of 1785?
The set of laws which determined the division, measurement, and sale of land northwest of the ohio river.
What was the northwest ordinance of 1787?
The set of laws that established the northwest territory and methods for admiting sections of the territory with more than 60,000 people as states.
How did the northwest Ordinance deal with slavery?
Slavery was not allowed in the northwest territories.
Why Daniel Shays and 1000 men start a rebellion in 1786?
They were upset because there was no market to sell their products and they thought that it wqas the fault of the new government.
Why was the constitutional convention called in 1787?
The new government could not last because it could not gain money and the economy was suffering.
What was the role of George Washington in the Constituional Convention?
At first he was against a new constitution, but later on he was a major proponant. He gave it the popularity it needed to pass.
What was the role of Alexander Hamilton in the Constituional Convention?
He was the first to propose the convention as well as the representative of New York.
What was the role of James Madison in the Constituional Convention?
He was the 'best prepared for the convention' and was the source of most of the major ideas proposed in the constitution as well as the representative of Virginia.
What were the three key elements of the virginia plan?
1)Bicameral legislature
2)executive leader (elected by legislature)
3)Proportional representation
Which states wanted the Virginia plan?
Big ones
What were the three key elements of the New Jersey plan?
1)unicameral legislature
2)equal representation
3)executive leader
Which states wanted the New Jersey Plan?
Little Ones
What were the three key elements of the 'Great Compromise'
1)Bicameral legislature
2)One house of equal representation, one of proportional
3)executive branch
What was the three fifths compromise?
The south agreed to only count three fifths of their slaves in their population to receive votes in the house of representatives.
Oooops
Oooops
Where was the inspiration for the constitution taken from?
The Romans, The Magna Carta, The English Bill of Rights (Locke), and Baron de Montesquieu.
What did the magna carta and the english bill of rights contribute to the constitution?
Succesful methods for preserving a commander in chief without that commander having absolute power.
What did Baron de Montesquieu contribute to the constitution?
The seperation of powers into three branches, each of which needs at least one of the others to act.
Who were some federalists and what did they believe?
Hamilton, Madison, Franklin, Washington, and John Jay. They believed in a strong stable central government.
Who were some anti-federalists and what did they believe?
Jefferson, Paine, Patrick Henry. A large central government would cause tyranny because of the lesser importance of the individual.
When was the constitution ratified?
July 1788
What is the theme of the first article of the constitution?
The legislative branch
What do sections 7-10 of the first article of the constitution deal with?
How to aprove laws, the powers of congress, the powers denied to the federal government, and powers denied to the states.
What are the main powers and duties of the president?
Comander in chiefe of army, make treaties with the approval of congress, international relations, make a yearly state of the union adress to congress, commision all federal officials.
What process must be followed to impeach a federal official?
Authorization of investigation in house of representatives and then trial in senate.
What is the theme of the first ammendment to the constitution?
Freedom of religion, expresion, press, and meeting.
What is the main theme of the second ammendment to the constituion?
The right to bear arms.
What is the main theme of the fourth ammendment to the constituion?
Protection from invasion of privacy.
What is the main theme of the fifth ammendment to the constituion?
The rights of acused persons.
What is the main theme of the sixth ammendment to the constituion?
Right to a quick and just trial.
What is the main theme of the eighth ammendment to the constituion?
Reasonable monetary and other punishments.
What is the main theme of the ninth ammendment to the constituion?
The ommitance of certain rights from the constitution does not mean that they are not given to the people.
What is the main theme of the tenth ammendment to the constituion?
Powers not given to the federal government that are not prohibited are powers of the states.
What was Hamilton's plan to reduce the national debt?
To pay all debts by establishing a national bank and making more bonds.
What were Madison and Jefferson's arguments against the national bank?
They thought they only benifited the rich and that it was not permited by the constitution.
What was the purpose of the protective tarrifs proposed by Hamilton?
To promote industry and make money for the government.
What was the whiskey rebellion?
A rebellion in western Pennsylvania in 1794 caused by frustration with new taxes on whiskey.
What caused the formation of parties in the US?
Differences in opinion of Washington's cabinet (Jefferson y Hamilton)
What was Hamilton's party and what were its key beliefs?
Federalists. Strong central government, admiration for england, loose interpretation of constitution.
What was Jefferson's party and what were its key beliefs?
The democtatic-republicans. Strong State Governments, Admiration of france for use of democracy, strict constitutional interpretation.
Why was the country devided about the French Revolution?
Some said that it was a good application of democratic principles, but later it became very bloody and people became unsure.
What was the alien act?
An act passed by the federalists in congress to slow down the growth of the democratic republicans. Gave the president power to deport 'dangerous' aliens, and made it take 14 years to become a US citizen.
What was ther sediction act?
An act passed by the federalists in congress to slow down the growth of the democratic republicans. Made it a crime to flasly critisize the government, congress, or president.
What were the Kentucky and virginia resolutions?
political statements in favor of states rights written by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1798. They were passed in opposition of the federal Alien and Sedition Acts.
Why were the virginia and kentucky resolutions overturned?
They violated the supremacy of federal law as stated in the constitution.
What is laisezz-faire?
The politics of the smallest possible government to let the economy drive itself naturally.
What happened in the case of marbury vs. madison?
Jefferson had ignored William Marbury's judicial position and had ordered madison not to deliver his comission. Marbury filed suit against Madison to force him to deliver it.
What was the ruling of marbury vs. madison?
Supreme court president Jhon Marchall ruled that it did not have the power to make a decision about the case.
What important power of the supreme court was first used in this case?
Judicial Review
What is judicial review?
The power to declare void a statute that the court considers unconstitutional.
What and why did Jefferson want to buy in 1802?
New Orleans from the french. The french were not letting them use the important port that is there to get into the mississippi river.
Why did Jefferson buy all of Louisiana as well?
The frecnch offered it for only 5 million dollars more than the part that the americans wanted to buy because they had given up their hopes of an american emprire.
What was the purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition?
To find a path to the Pacific Ocean and to observe the territory that the United States had just bought.
What were some reasons why the Americans started the war of 1812?
They wanted shipping rights in the carribean, they wanted the british to stop taking men from their ships, and they wanted canadian land.
Who were Tecumseh and the Prophet?
Brothers who wanted the indigenous nations to unite and to go back to their pre-european religion.
What happened at the battle of tippecanoe?
(1811) General William Henry Harrison attacked prohpents town on the tippecanoe river. He made the indigenous people retreat and it was considered a glorious victory.
Who were some war hawks and what did they stand for?
Henry Clay, John Calhoun (generally southerners and westerners). They wanted war with england because of british attacks on ships and because they were anxious to grow the country.
What was the mistake of the british in the war of 1812?
Moving on from Washington DC to Baltimore.
What was the Hartford convention?
A gathering of federalist representatives from New England states who were opposed to the war of 1812. They almost left the nation.
What was the treaty of Ghent and what were the terms it demanded?
The treaty that ended the war of 1812. Peace. No borders were chaneged, and shipping rights were not mentioned because the british no longer needed troops after the defeat of Napoleon.
What happened at the battle of New Orleans?
A group of british troops attacked a group of american troops lead by Jackson (without either knowing the treaty had been passed). After a bloody battle, the Americans won because of their use of trenches.
What new technology caused the industrial revolution in america?
The idea of bringing people together in factories, the water wheel, and the the steam engine.
What was the role of women in new england textile factories?
Women made up up to 80% of the workers in many of the new england textile mills because they could leave their farms to work all day.
Why did larger cities grow in the north than the south during the 19th century?
In the north there was more industrialization and everybody had to be in the same place to work, as opposed to farming, where everybody has to be spread out.
What was the era of good feelings?
The era after the demise of the federalists during the monroe presidency that only had one political party, and therefore scarce partisan tensions.
What was the purpose of the second national bank?
(1816) stabelized american currency after the crisis caused by the lack of a national bank to make the only currency for use in the US.
What were the three tennants of Henry Clay's american system?
1)selective high tariffs (protect industry
2) government investments in infrastructure
3) a national bank (to control and promote industry)
What was the purpose of McCullough v. Maryland?
Maryland attempted to impede Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland. The bank thought this was illegal.
What was the decision of McCullough v. Maryland?
Maryland could not target any federal divisions, even within Maryland.
What was the importance of McCullough v. Maryland?
It established
1.that the Constitution grants to Congress implied powers in the function of the government
2.state action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of poewer by the Federal government.
What was the Adams-Onis treaty?
The agreement between The US and Spain after they were attacked by Jackson. The US got florida and paid $5 million.
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
(1823) United States' opinion that European powers should no longer colonize the Americas or interfere with the affairs of sovereign nations located there.
What was the expansion of suffrage in the 1810's and 1820's and what was its significance?
It was a movement which got rid of many of the property prerequisits for voting. After the movement more than 57% more people could vote.
Who were the candidates in the election of 1824?
William Crawford, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay (all republican) and John Q. Adams (whig).
Who won the election of 1824 and why was it called 'the corrupt bargain'?
John Q. Adams. Jackson won boththe electoral vote and the popular vote, but did not receive over 50%. He then lost in the house of reps. because Clay made a deal with Adams to vote for him to break the tie if he could become secretary of state.
Who were the candidates in the elction of 1828? Who won?
Jackson and John Q. Adams. Jackson.
What is mudlsinging?
thrying to ruin an opponants reputation by insulting them.
What was the spoils system?
When the democrats, after winning an election gave government jobs to its supporters as a reward for working toward victory.
When and why did Jackson veto the 2nd US bank?
1832. He thought that it only helped the rich to become richer.
What was the nullification crisis of 1832?
the crisis which caused by the reaction of the southerners to a high protective tarrif (threatening seperation)
What was Worcester V. Georgia?
a case involving cheroquee indians which were being forced out of their lands even though they were given authority by the state government to act as a sovereiggn nation.
Why was worcester V. georgia important?
Although the supreme court ruled in favor of the cherokee, Jackson ognored the verdict and sent them to oklahoma forceably.
What was the panic of 1837?
A severe economic depression which was caused by a lack of a national bank, and therefore inflation. Van Buren did nothing to try to stop it.
What was 'Tippecanoe and Tyler too?'
The campaign slogan of William Henry Harrison in 1840.
What was the 'manifest destiny'
A beliefe that the united states wasdestined by god to go from the atlantic to the pacific.
Why did Texas separate from Mexico?
The mexican government was nervous about the number of americans in texas and illegalized immigration of americans to texas. This ruined the commerce of texas because it depended on the US.
Why did it take so long (2 years) after the annexation of texas to make it into a state?
The balance between slave states and free states needed to be preserved.
What was the Oregon Treaty?
A treaty which settled British and American claims on the oregon territory, dividing it on the 49th parallel.
Why was there a Mexican-Amreican War in 1846?
Mexico thought that the border was at Rio Nueces 150 miles north of where the US thought it was at Rio Grande.
What were the three parts of Polk's plan for the Mexican-American War
1)secure the border
2)Attack New Meco and California
3)Attack Mexico City
What territories where acquired from Mexico in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
The Rio Grande, California and New Mexico Tewrritory (whole current southwest)
Why did the US agree to the Gadsen Purchase of 1853?
Even though it was 10 million for a small piece of land in the middle of the dessert, the US wanted to build a transcontinental railroad through that area.
What was transcendentalism and who were some transcendentalists?
A movement started in New England in response to the culture of the time which included the most prominent intellectuals of the time. Some were Emerson, Thoreau, and Longfellow.