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24 Cards in this Set

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Name one cause of the French Revolution
The american revolution-1775 stimulated and educated, or the tensions between nobles and middle class
Describe the breakdown of the old order
$ probs in govt, they needed to pay for voyages to america=DEBT. all $ had to go to the natl debt, not enough money for basic needs of govt.. couldnt get out of it b/c the aristocracy controlled and it wouldnt be a popular descicion. currency=out of date... leads to social and pol. demands
describe the social and political demands after the breakdown of the old order.
Estates still in use, bourgeoise=prosperous mid. class, mid class hates fuedal priveleges, taxed heavily, but both nobility and mid class want to end absolutism.
what are the four phases of the french revolution, what time period, and which leaders were involved with each?
1. the end of absolutism, louis xiv 18th cent 2. constituitional monarchy,1789 louis xvi 3. Radical Republic, (louis xvi killed) Robespierre (girondists and mountain control natl convention) 1792 4. Napoleanic Empire 1799-1815
Causes of the storming of Bastille June 14, 1789
Price of Grain went UP- 1789
artisans and laborers out of work, economy and govt went down
what were the effects of the storming of the bastille? june 14 1789
The Great Fear, vagabonds roaming and killing on countryside, the natl assembly forced to meet.. decrees equal taxation, abolishes fuedal privelges, and serfdom is abolished (peasants gain recognition)
When, who and what did the Declaration of the rights of man state?
August 27 1789, Natl Assembly wrote, men have natural rights of liberty, property, security, and resistance to opression, equality before law, representative govt for soviergn ppl.. it limited monarchy power
What were outcomes of the Declarations of the rights of man?
Poor women of paris march on versailles and force the monarchy to move to paris (b/c of bread prices)
Natl assembly created a CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY--LIMITS KINGS POWER,
NOBILITY ABOLISHED, complete law power given to natl assembly. natl assembly ordered religious toleration,
nationalized property of church--(church land is no longer the churches)--abolished monastaries- made people choose either devotion to church or revoltion.
World war and republican France--1791-1799. What were peoples reactions to the war france waged against tyranny (or basically europe)
ppl hoped liberalism would prevail, so their society could change..but Burke thought that it was chaotic and would create a tyrannical govt.. kings feared that the liberalism would spread and they would lose thier power
Who was wollenscraft? what theories did he/she oppose?
a woman who wrote for equality of the sexes and liked revolutionary doctrines,but wished for them to extend to women, didnt approve of the ideas of Burke..
What was the Declaration of Pillnitz(1791) and what was a reaction to it?
A declaration that stated that Austria and Prussia would/could go to war against France. France got mad and the jacobins (radical republicans) declared war on austria, they tried to promote patriotism in France
Who and when was France declared a republic?
The natl convention, 1792
World war and republican France--1791-1799. What were peoples reactions to the war france waged against tyranny (or basically europe)
ppl hoped liberalism would prevail, so their society could change..but Burke thought that it was chaotic and would create a tyrannical govt.. kings feared that the liberalism would spread and they would lose thier power
Who was wollenscraft? what theories did he/she oppose?
a woman who wrote for equality of the sexes and liked revolutionary doctrines,but wished for them to extend to women, didnt approve of the ideas of Burke..
What was the Declaration of Pillnitz(1791) and what was a reaction to it?
A declaration that stated that Austria and Prussia would/could go to war against France. France got mad and the jacobins (radical republicans) declared war on austria, they tried to promote patriotism in France
Total war and terror- under robespierre.. how did his planned economy affect society?
helped the poor..fixed prices so they couldnt rise, rationed, workshops produced goods for war, Robespierre had the 'Reign of Terror'- stopped opposers of the revolution by jailing or killing.. helped sansculettes and made a state controlled economy.. instituted 'emergency socialism'- based on manufacturing and production.. drew on nationalism for war
Outcomes of the Reign of Terror?
The thermidorian reaction-- a period of fear against the reign of terror-- executed robespierre and reverted to bourgoise liberalism (mid class reasserts power) mid class writes the directory--5 executive body (5 dictators), written b/c they wanted no sole leader, pro-war, armies would employ people and create stability,ppl didnt want it, then a result the military dictatorship under Napolean Bonaparte. (didnt want monarchy)
What did the public first think of Napolean?
approved b/c they wanted a strong military leader to rebuild france... named first consol of the republic in 1799
What did Nap do to France?!
maintained order and compromised through writing-- Civil code of 1804-- gave mid. class equality under the law and the right to own property.. put retired revolutionaries in his govt (ppl that didnt care for the revo anymore)..forgave emigrate that fled france and invited them back without penalty (to unify), signed concordat of 1801 with pope pious VII, gave freedom of worship to catholics (gained support of catholics), overall brought order and stability to France but opposed some revo concepts -- didnt want free speech, press, or elections. Joe. Foushe--spys on what ppl say..demoted any rights women had gained--family monarch--father and husband control.. male domination
Napoleans war's and foreign policy? hint-france is @ war w/everyone and needs to ally so..ends with british blockade
tries to ally with austria and Great Britain.. but they say no, defeats austria(1801) and then GB says okay..Peace with GB(1802)..Another war (against the Third Coalition--Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Britain) resulted in British naval dominance at the Battle of Trafalgar (1805).
Napoleon used the fear of a conspiracy to return the Bourbons to power to get himself proclaimed emperor in 1804.
The Third Coalition collapsed at Austerlitz (1805), and Napoleon reorganized the German states into the Confederation of the Rhine.
In 1806, Napoleon defeated the Prussians at Jena and Auerstädt.
In the Treaty of Tilsit (1807), Prussia lost half its population, while Russia accepted Napoleon's reorganization of western and central Europe.
Russia also joined with France in a blockade against British goods.
Napoleon's Grand Empire in Europe means..?
French control of continental Europe.
Napoleon introduced many French laws, abolishing feudal dues and serfdom in the process.
However, he also levied heavy taxes.
French rule sparked patriotic upheavals and nationalism in other countries.
How did Napolean fall?
The beginning of the end for Napoleon came with the Spanish revolt (1808) and the British blockade.
The French invasion of Russia in 1812 was a disaster for Napoleon--over 500,000 died or were taken prisoner.(winter)
Napoleon was defeated by the Fourth Coalition (Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain) and abdicated his throne in 1814, only to be defeated again at Waterloo in 1815.
The Bourbon dynasty was restored in France under Louis XVIII.
summary sentence.
The French revolution left a range of political options and alternative visions of the future--including liberalism, assertive nationalism, radical democratic republicanism,
what was the leading cause for the quadruple alliance (4th coalition)
so that they could get napoleon out of power