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52 Cards in this Set

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Ohio Country
The land that became our state; includes parts of Indiana, West Virginia and Pennsylvania
New France
The lands in N America claimed by Jacques Cartier for the French King. (1535) near the mouth of the St. Lawrence River.
Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieu de la Salle
Ran a trading post in New France; He discovered the "Beautiful River" (Ohio River)This brought many traders and trappers to Ohio Country
Colony
a place ruled by a distant country
Celeron de Blainville
Went to Ohio Country in 1749 to get the British to leave; he buried a lead plate at the mouth of each river saying the Ohio Country belonged to France
Christophe Gist
Sent by British business people to survey (measure) the land; they planned to sell land in the Ohio Country to Colonists
George Croghan
Owned the largest British trading post in the Ohio Country
The Road to War
1752- French attacked Pickawillany, forced British traders to leave and began to build forts along Ohio River
1753 - Robert Dinwiddie order G. Washington to protect trading post in Pittsburgh, built Ft. Duquesne
Fort Necessity
fort built at G. Washington's orders to protect the British; wasn't strong enough
What the British and French wanted
British - to settle on the land forcing the Native Am. out

French - wanted to build trade in Ohio Country
French and Indian War
French and Native Americans fought against the British; "the seven years war"; fought in both Europe and N. America.
ally
person or country that joins with another for a common purpose
treaty
an agreement between two countries to end the war; French and Indian War ended in 1763.
Treaty Of Paris
ended French and Indian War; French gave all land in N. America to the British - all of Canada as well as land east of the Mississippi River
Pontiac
Native American leader - Ottawa; began a war against the British; they finally gave up
Henry Bouquet
British soldier sent to protect forts against Ottawa and other tribes
frontier
the area near the edge of settlements
proclamation
law
1763 Proclamation
British set up Appalachian Mountains as a dividing line; American Colonists couldn't move west of the mountains
squatters
people who settled on land w/out permission
Logan
a Mingo leader- his family was murdered by colonists; "Logan's Lament"
Declaration of Independence
written in 1776; declared the colonists decision to be independent of British rule
tax
money people pay to the government so it can perform public services
American Revolution
war fought with American colonies to end British rule
Cornstalk
agreed to fight against the American colonists of the Northwest (the land just west of the Appalachian!)
Killed in 1777 by American colonists
Fort Laurens
built by Americans along the Tuscarawas River - only fort built in Ohio during the American Revolution.
Simon Kenton
skilled tracker who supplied food to the Ohioans during long winter months; sometimes acted as a spy
Ann Bailey
a squatter who acted as a scout and spy
George Rogers Clark
led colonial soldiers through Ohio; attacked British posts in Illinois and Indiana; defeated the British
mission
a religious settlement
Year of Blood
1782 - worst year of war in Ohio
Gnadenhutten
tents of grace; built by Moravian Germans; they taught Delawares it was wrong to fight; Delawares refused to fight in Am. Revolution; angry Americans killed 96 of them
William Crawford; David Williamson
led the attack on Gnadenhutten; Crawford escaped but was later tortured to death by the Native Americans
Articles of Confederation
1777; written as a basis for setting up their own government; took 4 years to approve the articles
Land Ordinance of 1785
Land was to be divided in to 6 mile squares called townships (Ohio 1st) Each townships had 36 small squares called sections (1 mile long/640 acres); sold for $1/acre
Northwest Ordinance
1787 - passed by Congress
gave the region a name - the Northwest Territory; set up the government
Northwest Ordinance 3 step plan to statehood
1. Choose leaders - governor, secretary and 3 judges
2. After 5000 white males settled they would vote for legislature
3. 60,000 people could write constitution and ask to be a state
*Ohio 1st state from NW Territory
Arthur St. Clair
First Governor of Northwest Territory
trial by jury
the right for a person accused of a crime to be judged by people in the community
slavery
forbidden in the Northwest Ordinance
Danielle Boone
Scout who helped mark the Wilderness road through the Appalachian Mountains
pioneers
are people who settle on land that is new to them
flatboats
wooden rafts with low sides steered down the river with long wooden oars
Josiah Harmar
1785 - he and his soldiers forced the squatters to leave

Built a fort (Ft. Harmar) at the mouth of Muskingum River where it flows into Ohio River
Rufus Putnum & Benjamin Tupper & Manasseh Cutler
formed the Ohio Company -- planned to buy land from the government and sell it to others; Cutler persuaded the government to sell them 1,500,000 acres of land in what is now SE Ohio
Marietta
Ohio Company's first settlement; named after French Queen Marie Antoinette; First permanant European American settlement in the NW Territory and first in what is now Ohio; build Fort Martius at the center of settlement to protect against raids from Native Americans
Cleve Symmes
1787 - bought the land between the Little Miami and Great Miami RIvers; Called the Symmes Purchase; Benjamin Stiles bought first land and set up Columbia at the mouth of the Little Miami River
Losantiville
2nd settlement in the Symmes Purchase
Fort Washington
built by settlers of both Columbia and Losantiville (changed it's name to Cincinnati)
Connecticut Land Company
Moses Cleaveland - led group to survey land; settled along Cuyahoga River -- it's now Cleveland; grew slowly but is now a big city
Clearing the Land
much of land was covered by forest; settlers cleared away land and cut down trees, burned logs or hauled them away
Providing Food
Settlers brought seeds with them for fist planting; crop was usually corn; was made into food and fed to livestock; some saved for next year's crop; other food - hunting, berries, fruits; plants are used as medicine since there were few doctors