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63 Cards in this Set

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the process of bone formation, in which connective tissues, such as cartilage are turned to bone or bone-like tissue. The ossified tissue is invaginated with blood vessels. These blood vessels bring minerals like calcium and deposit it in the ossifying tissue.
Complete Fracture
A fracture in which bone fragments separate completely.
Incomplete Fracture
A fracture in which the bone fragments are still partially joined.
Linear Fracture
A fracture that is parallel to the bone's long axis.
Transverse Fracture
A fracture that is at a right angle to the bone's long axis.
Oblique Fracture
A fracture that is diagonal to a bone's long axis.
Compression Fracture
A fracture that usually occurs in the vertebrae.
Spiral Fracture
A fracture where at least one part of the bone has been twisted.
Comminuted Fracture
A fracture causing many fragments.
Compacted Fracture
A fracture caused when bone fragments are driven into each other
Open Fracture
A fracture when the bone reaches the skin
Bug fracture
A fracture when the bone is in place, but the fracture has the appearance of a crushed insect.
(Latin ipse; self/same): on the same side as another structure. Thus, the left arm is ipsilateral to the left leg.
(Latin contra; against): on the opposite from another structure. Thus, the left arm is contralateral to the right arm, or the right leg.
Latin intermedius; inter, between and medius, middle): between two other structures. Thus, the navel is intermediate to (or intermediate between) the left arm and the contralateral (right) leg.
Latin viscus; internal organs, flesh): organs within the body's cavities. The stomach is within the abdominal cavity, and is thus visceral.
Dorsal - Ventral
...from spinal column (back) to belly (front).

The next most obvious end-points are the back and belly. These are termed the dorsal end (Latin dorsum; back) and the ventral end (Latin venter; abdomen), respectively. By connecting the outermost points the dorsoventral axis is formed (sometimes hyphenated: dorso-ventral). This is commonly abbreviated to DV (or D-V) axis. The DV axis, by definition, is perpendicular (at right angles to) the AP axis at all times (see below).

As with anteroposterior, the terms "dorsal" and "ventral" are also used to describe relative positions along the dorsoventral axis. Thus, the pectoral fins are dorsal to the anal fin, but ventral to the dorsal fin in Fig. 2. (Note that these fins are not aligned anteroposteriorly, either — the dorsal fin being posterior to the pectoral, and anterior to the anal fins, respectively.)
Anterior - Posterior
...from head end to opposite end of body or tail.
Medial - Left or right (lateral)
...from centre of organism to one or other side.

The last axis, by geometric definition, must be at right angles to both the AP and DV axes. Obviously, the left side and right side of the organism are the outermost points between the two "sides" of the organism. When connected, these points form the left-right axis (commonly abbreviated to LR (or L-R) axis. Properly, this is called the dextro-sinistral (or, more uncommonly, the sinistro-dextral) axis, from the Latin dexter (right) and sinister (left). It is important to note that the "left" and "right" sides are the sides of the organism, and not those of the observer.
Proximal - Distal
...from tip of an appendage (distal) to where it joins the body (proximal).

The term proximal (Latin proximus; nearest) is used to describe where the appendage joins the body, and the term distal (Latin distare; to stand away from) is used for the point furthest from the point of attachment to the body. Since appendages often move independently of (and therefore change position with respect to) the main body, these separate directional terms are used when describing them.
(Latin palma; palm of the hand) is usually used for the anterior of the hand
used to describe the back of the hand.
is used when describing the hand, although it is sometimes applied to the arm as a whole
Sagittal (Median) plane
divides the body into sinister and dexter (left and right) portions.

plane is an X-Z plane, perpendicular to the ground, which separates left from right. The midsagittal plane is the specific sagittal plane that is exactly in the middle of the body.
coronal or frontal plane
divides the body into dorsal and ventral (back and front, or posterior and anterior) portions.

A coronal (also known as frontal) plane is an Y-Z plane, perpendicular to the ground, which (in humans) separates the anterior from the posterior, the front from the back, the ventral from the dorsal.
transverse plane, also known as an axial plane, horizontal, or cross-section
divides the body into cranial and caudal (head and tail) portions.

is an X-Y plane, parallel to the ground, which (in humans) separates the superior from the inferior, or put another way, the head from the feet.
is the main or mid section (shaft) of a long bone. It is usually filled with Yellow Cartilage, which is made mostly of adipose (fat). This provides some protection to shaft when presure is applied. Yellow marrow also contains white blood cells, which is important in the body's defense against disease.
is the portion of a long bone between the epiphyses and the diaphysis. The "growth plate", or "physis", or "epiphyseal plate", although it precedes the development of the ossified metaphysis, may also be referred to as the metaphysis. It is this part of the bone that grows during childhood; as it grows, it ossifies near the diaphysis and the epiphyses. At roughly 18 to 25 years of age, the metaphysis stops growing altogether and completely ossifies into solid bone.

Epiphyseal plates ("growth plates") are located in the metaphysis and are responsible for growth in the length of the bone.
is the name for a rounded end of a long bone. The epiphysis is filled with red marrow, which produces erythrocytes, or red blood cells. Located in the epiphysis is the epiphysial plate, also known as the growth plate.
Avulsion fracture
is where the tendon tears away a piece of bone.
Bone: Description of a fracture starts by naming the bone (20)
(1) Humerus
(2) Radius/Ulna
(3) Femur
(4) Tibia/Fibula
(5) Spine
(6) Pelvis
(24) Carpus
(25) Metacarpals
(26) Phalanx (Hand);
(72) Talus
(73) Calcaneus
(74) Navicular
(75) Cuneiform
(76) Cuboid
(80) LisFranc
(81) Metatarsals
(82) Phalanx (Foot);
(45) Patella
(06) Clavicle
(09) Scapula
is the cluster of bones in the hand between the radius and ulna and the metacarpus
is the intermediate part of the hand skeleton that is located between the fingers distally and the carpus which forms the connection to the forearm.
phalanx or phalanges
The name Phalanges is commonly given to the bones that form fingers and toes. In primates such as humans and monkeys, the thumb and big toe have two phalanges, while the other fingers and toes consist of three. Phalanges are classified as long bones.

The phalanx do not really have individual names but are named after the digit, and their distance from the body.

Distal phalanges are at the tips of the fingers and toes.
Proximal phalanges are closest to the hand (or foot) and articulate with the metacarpals of the hand, or metatarsals of the foot.
Middle or Intermediate phalanges are between the distal and proximal. The thumb and big toe do not have middle phalanges.
The term phalanx or phalanges refers to an ancient Greek army formation in which soldiers stand side by side, several rows deep, like an arrangement of fingers or toes.
is the second largest of the tarsal bones.

It articulates with the tibia, fibula, calcaneus, and navicular.

It occupies the middle and upper part of the tarsus, supporting the tibia above, resting upon the calcaneus below, articulating on either side with the lateral and medial malleoli, and in front with the navicular.
is the largest bone of the human foot. It articulates with two other tarsal bones, the talus above and the cuboid toward the midfoot. In addition to receiving the weight of the body with each step, the calcaneus is the anchor for the plantar fascia, which supports the arch of the foot.

The posterior-most portion of the calcaneus is the calcaneal tuberosity, a large, non-articulating process that is the insertion point for the calcaneal tendon (or Achilles tendon). In addition, this process is the origin for some of the muscles and tendons of the foot.

It is also known as the heel bone.
The navicular bone
is one of the tarsal bones, found in the foot. Its name derives from the bone's resemblance to a small boat, caused by the strongly concave proximal articular surface. The term navicular bone or hand navicular bone was formerly used for the scaphoid bone, one of the carpal bones of the wrist.

It is located on the medial side of the foot, and articulates proximally with the talus, distally with the three cuneiform bones, and occasionally laterally with the cuboid.
articular process
A projection that contacts an adjacent bone.
The region where adjacent bones contact each other—a joint.
A long, tunnel-like foramen, usually a passage for notable nerves or blood vessels.
A large, rounded articular process.
A prominent ridge.
A relatively small projection or bump.
A projection near to a condyle but not part of the joint.
A small, flattened articular surface.
An opening through a bone.
A broad, shallow depressed area.
A small pit on the head of a bone.
A cavity within a bone.
A long, thin projection, often with a rough surface. Also known as a ridge.
One of two specific protuberances of bones in the ankle.
A short canal.
A relatively large projection or prominent bump.(gen.)
An arm-like branch off the body of a bone.
A cavity within a cranial bone.
A relatively long, thin projection or bump.
Articulation between cranial bones.
One of two specific tuberosities located on the femur.
A projection or bump with a roughened surface, generally smaller than a tuberosity.
A projection or bump with a roughened surface.
Compact bone
The hard outer layer of bones so-called due to its minimal gaps and spaces. This tissue gives bones their smooth, white, and solid appearance, and accounts for 80% of the total bone mass of an adult skeleton. Compact bone may also be referred to as dense bone or cortical bone.
Trabecular bone
Filling the interior of the organ is this bone tissue (an open cell porous network also called cancellous or spongy bone) which is comprised of a network of rod- and plate-like elements that make the overall organ lighter and allowing room for blood vessels and marrow. Trabecular bone accounts for the remaining 20% of total bone mass, but has nearly ten times the surface area of compact bone.
The exterior of bones (except where they interact with other bones through joints), which has an external fibrous layer, and an internal osteogenic layer; is richly supplied with blood, lymph and nerve vessels, attaching to the bone itself through Sharpey's fibres.