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177 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are some examples of therapeutic nursing techniques?
silence, reflective, accepting, empathy, clarification, voicing doubt, etc.
What are some examples of non-therapeutic nursing techniques?
Giving approval, false reassurance, rejecting, disapproving, advising, probing, testing, etc
What are the elements of the communication process?
sender, receiver, message, feedback
What factors influence communication?
environment, values, attitudes, knowledge, cultural, beliefs, personal histroy, gender, social status, age, developmental level
In what ways do we communicate?
hear, read, see, discuss, teach
What are the non-verbal attending skills?
squarely, open, lean in, eye contact, relaxation
what is solar?
non verbal attending skills
When is touch appropriate?
if you know the person well or are consoling them.
Discuss territorality and space in the context of an interview.
should have 4-5 ft between. Keeps people confortable.
What is assertive?
state opinion and feelings w/o encroaching up another person's emotions and feelings
Give an example of an assertive statement.
"I do not think that is appropriate."
What is passive?
never voice own thoughts and feelings and do as told regardless of personal feelings
Give an example of a passive action.
Give a medication to a pt. even though pt is allergic and dr. prescribed
What is aggressive?
voice own opinions and feelings in a way that can be threatening
Give an example of an aggressive statement.
"slap me one more time and i will slap you back"
What are the guidelines of self-disclosure.
Disclose only what you feel comformable and when it is appropriate
What are the guidelines of confidentiality?
share nothing that will identify the patient, HIPAA
What are the guidelines of humor?
make sure it is appropriate and it is someone you know. use sparingly
Which NANDA is most ocmmonly used to deal with communication problems?
impaired verbal communication
How should you address client?
by their last name until you are told otherwise
What terms should be avoided?
anything deroggatory or terms of endearment
Which communication channel is best for remembering?
visualing and teaching
What are some things that give useful feedback?
give appropriate answer, give clues for appropriate answer, dont be formulating answer while the person is talking, listen
Why are "why" questions non-therapeutic?
force answers, demeaning, implies blame
What is empathy?
feel for the patient
What is sympathy?
feel with the patient
Which is the better therapeutic technique? empathy or sympathy
What do Open ended questions facilitate?
answers.....more details
What do closed ended questions do to answers?
provide for one word answers, no a lot of elaboration, force choice
Give an example of an open ended question?
Would you please tell me more about your childhood?
Give an example of a closed ended question?
When did you take that? Anything that is a "yes" or "no" answer
What do you do when communicating with a special needs client?
use language the understand, look to family for answers if necessary
What do you do when communication with an elderly person?
be in eye sight, speak slower, dont yell, dont use words they dont understand or are slang
What do you do when communicating with a child?
dont use big words, be on their level, be calm, explain
How would you define communication?
Process of transmitting messages and interpreting meaning. Verbally and nonverbally interacting with others to discuss
What are the two types of communication?
verbal and nonverbal
Is there a problem with using too many questions? Why
yes, patient can become confused, annoyed, break train f thought breaks therapeutic chain
How does anxiety affect communication?
can stop communication, make a barrier
What was Nightengales's center of concern?
What makes a person suitable for nursing?
chaste, sober, honest, truthful, trustworthy, punctual, quiet and quick, discrete with self-indulgence, cheerful, hopeful, clean, think about pt before self
How did Nightengale feel about nursing in regards to the Dr.
implicit obedience and loyalty
What are the nursing roles?
Surrogate Mother, technician, manager, specializing agent, health teacher, counselor or psychotherapist
How is nursing changing?
more skills, more colleagues han subordinates, more education, more politically correct and responsible
What qualities do you believe a nurse should have?
caring attitudes, assertive, empathy
Define Nursing
caring for sick and disabled person
What are independent roles of nursing?
problem solving skills, filling nursings orders, doing a nursing diagnosis
What are dependent roles of nursing?
following Dr.'s orders
What are interdependent roles of nursing?
2 way communication and confirmation or orders
What is meant by saying that health is subjective and objective?
it is what you can observe and what they say
What is your definition of health?
overall state of well-being
How does the WHO defind health?
complete, physical, mental and social well being, not merely the absense of disease
Describe the health-illness continuim
health is a dynamic state that fluctuates as a person adapts to changes in the internal and external environments to maintain a state of physical emotional, intellectual, social, developmental and spiritual well bein
What is a risk factor?
genetic and physiological variables.
What are some examples of risk factors?
age, lifestyle, environment,
What does a risk factor do?
increases likelihood of getting illness or disease
What is high-level wellness?
optimal health
What is meant by saying heath is dynamic?
Ever changing process there are no ablsolutes
What can you know for sure about nursing?
That nothing is ever for sure
What are the major goals of healthy people 2010?
increased span of healthy life, reduce health disparities, achieve access to preventive service
define collaboration
working together
What are the characteristics of a a therapeutic relationship?
2 way, rapport, respect, genunineness, trust, honesty
What are the four phases of a relationship?
preinteraction, orientation, working, termination
What happens in the preinteraction phase of a working relationship?
review available data, and pts hx, talk to other caregives, anticipate health concerns, identify time and location,
when id the preinteraction phase of a working relationship?
before meeting the client
What happens in the oreientation phase of a working relationhip?
meet client, set tone, ct. tests you, assess cts health status, clarify roles, form contracts, let client know when to expect relationship to be terminated
What happens in the working phase of a working relationhsip?
work together to solve problems and achieve goals,
What happens in the termination phase of a working relationship?
remind client termination is near, evaluate goal achievement, reminisce, seperate from client and smooth transition to other caregivers
What are some principles of therapeutic relationships?
empower client, empathy, open and hones, value individual, watch boundaries, etc
What is GAS?
General Adaptation Syndrome
How many stages of GAS are there?
What is the first stage of GAS?
Alarm reaction
What happens in the alarm reaction stage of GAS?
up blood volume, blood glucose leves, spinephrine and norepine. heart rate, blood flow, mental alrertness
What does the first stage of GAS prepare an individual for?
for fight or flight
What is the 2nd stage of GAS?
resistance stage
What happens in the 2nd stage of GAS?
Body stabilizes and responds in an opposite manner to the alarm reaction all things return to normal levels and body repairs damage
What is the third stage of GAS?
exhaustion stage
What happens during the exhaustion stage?
body can no longer resist effects of stressor and engery is depleted. body unable to defend itsef
In which stage of GAS can death result?
Which stage does fight or flight happen?
alarm reaction
When would a person settle down and be able to plan an escape?
resistance stage
What is anxiety?
a state of uneasiness and apprehension as about future uncertainness
What is fear?
a feeling of agitation and anxiety caused by the presence or imminence of danger
What kind of events are espicially stressful for children?
shots death illness -- anything that happens to their parents
Whare are the NANDA for stress and anxiety?
ineffective coping invlude verbaliation of an inability to cope and ask for help
What are some physical indicatiors of stress on the cardiovascular system?
tightness of chest, increased HR, elevated BP
Whare are some physical indicatiors of stress on the respiratory system?
breathing difficulties, tachypnea
Whare are some physical indicators of stress on the neuroendocrine system?
headaches, migraines, fatigues, exhaustion, insomnia, sleep disturbances, uncoordnated, restlessness, tremors, sweating, dry mouth
What are some physical indicatiors of stress on the GI/ GU system?
cold hands and feet, urinary frequency, nausea, diarrhea, vomitting, wt. gain or loss, chg in appettie, GI bleeding
What are some physical indicators of stress on the Musculoskeletal system?
backaches, muscle aches, clenched jaw, slumped posture
Whare are some physical indicatior of stress on the reproductive system?
amenorrhea, failure to ovulate, loss of libido
Whare some immunological symptoms of stress?
frequent or prolonged colds/flu
Whare are some psychological symptoms of stress on cognitive function?
forgetfullness, denial, poor concentration, slower thinking, memory problems, distressing dreams, confusion, apathy, etc
What are some psychological symptoms of stress on emotional function?
disruption of logical thinking, blaming others, lack of motivation, crying, lack of interest, isolation, negative thinking, etc
What are some psychological symptoms of stress on your behavior and lifestyle
worrying, decreased invovlement, withdrawal, suspiciousness, chg in communication, up or down food intake and alcohol intake no exercise
What factors influence the response to stressors?
intensity, scope, duration, # and nature of stressors, personal control, cognitive appraisal, support
What are some methods to reduce stress?
regular exercise, support systems, time management, guided imagery and visualization, progressive muscle relaxation, journaling
What are nurses at high risk for?
substance abuse and burn out
Why are nurses at a high risk for drug abuse?
availability of drugs, and really stressed
Why are nurses at high risk for burn out?
too many pts, too much to do, not distancing self from job, no hobbies, internalizing issues
What is proactive?
acting in advance to deal with an expected difficulty, anticipatory behavior
What is reactive?
ten to be responsive to the situation or stimulus
What is positive affirmation?
telling yourself you are worth it and you are a good nurse, using good self talk
What is reality shock?
when a person really realizes what is going on and they go into mental shock
What is done to help deal with reality shock?
stress reducers
What can happen when a person goes into reality shock?
leads to cognitive regression and refusing to deal with the reality
What is test anxiety?
stress that appears in the prep time prior to a test
What helps test anxiety?
deep breathing, visualization, better preperation
What is stress?
mentally or emotionally disruptive or upsetting condition occurring in response to adverse external influences
What is stress capable of affecting?
physical and mental health
What is stress usually characterized by?
increased heart rate, rise in BP, muscular tension, irritability, depression
What is adaptation?
acquisition of modifications in an organism that enable it to adjust to life in a new environment
What is maladaptation?
faulty or inadequate adaptation
What results from the arousal of the SNS?
fight or flight reaction
What are the 3 stages of GAS?
alarm, resistance, exhaustion
what is primary gain?
evaluating an event for its personal meaning
What is secondary event?
focuses on possible coping strategies
What is eustress?
stress that protects self
What are endorphins?
any of a group of peptide hormones that bind to opiate receptors and are found mainly in the brain.
What do endorphins reduce?
the sensation of pain and affect emotions
What style of writing is nursing research presented in?
What edition of APA do we use?
Why is it important to base nursing practice on research?
so you can give quality care to your patient
What does the ANA code of ethics say about research?
participates in the adv. of the profession through contribution to practice, education, administration, and knowledge development
Why is nursing reasearch an ethical issue?
best care to pt, not harm pt
What a nursing research journal?
Nursing Research
What does it mean to be "peer reviewed" in a nursing journal?
your article is sent out to prefessionals that know about the topic and review it
Is peer reviewing a positive thing?
it makes for a more credible article
How do you identify quality research to incoporate into your practice?
reading research from an accredited research journal
What is an intro?
general overview and brief descripton of the nature of the research
What is problem identification?
background of why study needs to be done, how the research relates to current nursing concerns
What is the statement of purpose?
aims of research, formal statement of problem
What is the lit review/theoretical and conceptual framework
summary of what is known about the topic and other pertinent research on subject defines concepts, proposes relationships among concepts
What is the research question or hypothesis?
inquiry statemtn or predicted outcome of study, stated in terms of specific variables, their relationships, and what is to be measured
What is the methodology/design include?
setting, sample, design, data collection
What is the description of the methodology/ design section
where study occured, sample description and how related, how study conducted, how variables measured
What is data analysis?
statistical tests used
What are results?
report of statistical analysis, research ?'s ans., evid. of supp. for hypothesis, interpretation of findings
What are limitations?
weaknesses in design, measurement, or other part of process that introduceds bias or confounding results
What is discussion
conclusions, summary, non-tech interp. of result, for adv. knowledge, future research, eduation how findings fit with existing research
What are clinical inplications
use of findings in practice?
Where would you find the setting of the study?
methodology section
Where would you find the interpretation of findings?
Where would you find the summary?
Where would you find in a study where the findings fit in with current research?
Where would you find a general overview of the subject?
Where would you find the formal statement of problem?
statement of purpose
Where would you find what is to be measured?
research question or hypothesis
Where would you find the part of the study that introduces bias or confounding results?
What does the title page look like in APA?
pg #, title, student name, university
Where is the Title Student name and University found on the title page?
centered in the top 1/3rd of page
Where do you find the page number on title page
Top right hand corner
What does a reference page look like in APA?
reference and authors.......hanging indent
Where is the word "reference" written on the reference page?
top, centered
How are authors listed?
How do you cite a reference in APA style?
in paper with author and date
how do you cite a quote in APA?
author, page number
How do you incorporate a quote if less than 40 words
use quote marks
How do you incorporate a quote if more than 40 words
block quotation with hanging indent
In what phase of the nurse client relatioship do you mutually set goals?
Where do you review feelings on relationship
Where do you explore personal beliefs and feelings
Where do you help cliend learn new behaviors?
working phase
Where do you review appropriate theory?
What is the traditional role of a nurse?
What is the primary role of a nurse?
How do we care for pts
MAny examples
How are we teachers?
teach abouttherapy, condition, choices is critical to successful outcome of treatment, patient education after talking with phys
how are we advocates?
protect our patients
how are we managers?
we organize care so that other nurses can carry on w/o us present
How are we colleagues
assist others, help phys - follow orders, collaborators
How are we experts?
If called to court case
How do we care for pts
MAny examples
How are we teachers?
teach abouttherapy, condition, choices is critical to successful outcome of treatment, patient education after talking with phys
how are we advocates?
protect our patients
how are we managers?
we organize care so that other nurses can carry on w/o us present
How are we colleagues
assist others, help phys - follow orders, collaborators
How are we experts?
If called to court case