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89 Cards in this Set

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What is Phonemic Awareness?
the ability to understand and work with phonemes or the individual sounds in language.
How do children show that they have phonemis awareness?
-recognize which words begin with the same sound.
-saying the first and last sound in a word.
-blending- combining the seperate phonemes to say a word.
-segmenting a word into its indiviudal phonemes.
What is phonological awareness?
includes phonemic awareness, onsets and rimes, syllables and rhyming. over arching term, phonemic awareness is one type of phonological awareness.
What are some types of phonological awareness?
-identifying and making oral rhymes.
-identifying and working with syllables.
-using onsets and rhymes.
-using individual sounds (phonemes).
What is a grapheme?
smallest part of written language.
What is phonics?
Recognizing the patterns between phonemes and graphemes.
What is a syllable?
word part with the vowel in it.
What are onsets and rimes?
Onset if the first consonent sound heard, rime is the part that contains the vowel.
What are the activities that teachers use to build phonemic awareness?
-phoneme isolation- understanding individual phonemes in a word.
-phoneme identity- children see the same sound in different words.
-phoneme categorization- children notice the sound that doesn't belong.
-phoneme blending-children can combine individual phonemes into a word.
-phoneme segmentation-children can break apart a word into its individual phonemes.
-phoneme deletion-recognizing that a different word can be made by taking away a certain phoneme.
-phoneme addtion- children make a new word by adding a phoneme.
phoneme substitution-changing one phoneme for another.
How does phonemic awareness help children learn to read? to spell?
Children learn to read because they are able to acurratley and rapidly recall how to sound the words out. This leaves more time for comprehension. Children learn to spell by understanding that letter (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes) relate in a predicable way.
What is phonemic manipulation?
Being able to segment, blend, add, subtract and substitute phonemes in words.
When is phonemic awareness most effective?
When children are taught to use letters as they manipulate phonemes, rather than if instruction is limited to phonemes alone. In other words teach sounds and letters at the same time.
Focus on one or two types of manipulation at a time, no more. (blending and segmenting are suggested starting points.)
Giving students activities that are developmentally appropriate.
What are the distinctions between phonological awaresness and phonemic awareness?
Phonological- a broad term that includes phonemic awareness. Understanding and manipulating larger parts of speach, words, syllables, onsets and rimes as well as phonemes.
Phonemic-identifying and manipulating individual sounds in words.
What is the role of phonological and phonemic awareness in reading development?
Helps with spelling and reading. It is the foundation for both. Helps to build accuracy and speed of recognition, which leaves more time for comprehension.
What is the difference between phonemic and phonics skills?
While phonemic skills deal strictly with sound, phonics is the understanding of the relationship between the sounds (phonemes) and written letters, (graphemese).
What is the role of phonological and phonemic awareness skills ini the development of reading in individual students?
EEL students was have a hard time recognizing English words that sound the same. These skills help ELL students in that learning to speak English first lays the foundation for written language acquisition.
What are implicit and explicit phonological skills?
Instruction should be taught explicitly and systematically. This will lead to further strengthen and support those students who may struggle.
The role of phonemic awareness in reading development.
Instructional methods:
clapping syllables
seperating out a sound from a word.
sing familiar songs than replace a key word and put in a rhyming word.
How do you develope an understanding that print caries meaning?
Explictly describe how to hold a book, where its front/back covers are, where the index, table of contents are etc.
List environementally appropriate words throughout the student's environment.
What are the strategies for promoting an understanding of the relationship between spoken and written language?
-language chart in the classroom.
-using lables on shelves, lockers, desks etc.
-reading oversized or picture books.
-how to handel a book lessons.
-manipulative words and letters.-Marie Clay theorist.
What is the role of envirnomental print in developing print awareness?
-children cut out pictures and words from coupon books, menus, newspapers and magazines to create enviornmental print books.
-this enables students to connect items in their environment to printed words.
What are some strategies for promoting the directionality of print awareness?
-explicit modeling of directionality
-large picture books held in from of class and read to class.
-should be taught when the student writes as well.
What are some stategies for promoting the ability to track print in connected text?
-posting familiar texts around the room at "kid level"
-pointing to words as reading occurs.
-copy familiar reading on cars have student reassemble and diplay them.
-sing songs tailored to punctuation, capitalization etc.
-even if students can't read encourage them to find letters from left to right.
What is phonics instruction?
-teaches children the alphabetic prinicple- the relationships between phonemes (sounds) and letters (graphemes).
-goal is to help children decode words quickly.
What does research tell us about phonics instruction?
-instruction should be systematic and explicit-direct teaching of a set of letter sound relationships in a clearly defined sequence.
-should include substantial practise time.
What is synthetic phonics?
children learn how to convert letter (s) into sounds and blend them into words.
What is analytic phonics?
learn to understand letters-sound relationships in previously learned words. They do not pronounce words in isolation.
What is analogy based phonics?
children learn to use parts of word families they know to identify words that have similar parts.(root words, suffixes, prefixes)
What is phonics through spelling?
children learn to segment and make words by changing phonemes into graphemes.
What is embedded phonics?
children learn letter sound relationships by reading. this approach is not systematic or explicit.
What benifts are there to systematic and explicit instruction?
-improves word recognition and spelling. (K-1).
-improves reading comprehension.
-effective for children from all socio-economic classes.
Effective phonics instruction includes:
-explicit and systematic material.
-helps student understand why they are learning material.
-helps students apply knowledge.
-can be addapted to individual student's needs.
What is fluency?
-Being able to read a text quickly and accurately.
-provides a bridge between word recognition and word comprehension.
-fluent readers do not have to concentrate on decoding words, rather they can spend more time on comprehension.
What are the differences between more fluent readers and less fluent readers?
More-able to focuds on making connections between ideas and the text. Reading increasingly sounds natural, like speech.
Less-most have their primary focus on decoding words. Leaces little time for comprehension. Reading is choppy and halting.
What does research say about fluency instruction?
-repeated and monitored oral reading improves reading fluency and overall reading achievement.
-texts should be read at least four times to measure fluency.
What is the difference between fluency and automaticity?
Automaticity does address expression.
What is the process to instruct a student in fluency?
-read aloud to students. this helps students understand how to read with fluency. Have different adults do this.
-texts should be read at least four times, with occasional guidance.
What are independent, instructional and frustration levels of reading?
Independent- reading is at 95% success.
Instructional- reading is at 90% success.
Frustration- reading is below 90% success, child becomes too focussed on decoding, loses comprehension.
What are some types of reading chidlren can do?
-Student adult reading- adult reads first, child then reads with adult guidance, child then rereads until passage is fluent.
-choral- unison reading.
-audiotape guided.
-peer reading.
Is there a benift to silen independent reading?
Yes, but struggling readers may not get all they need to out of it.
Is increasing word recognition sufficient for developing fluency?
No. There is a benifit, but by it self it does not guarentee fluency.
What are the different types of vocabulary?
What does the research say about vocabluary instruction?
Most vocabulary is learned indirectly, yet some can be taught directly.
What are the differences between indirect and direct vocabulary instruction?
-indirect- students learn word when they hear or see words used. best learning takes place after being exposed to many different types of contexts.
-directly- explicitly taught, words and word strategies.
What are some effective word learning strategies?
-Dictionaries, and other such resources.
-Understanding word parts (suffixes, prefixes, roots etc)
-context cues.
What words should be taught directly?
-important words- words before a new text or topic.
-useful words-words students will see again.
-difficult words- words with similar meanings different spellings, words with similar spellings but different meanings.
What are the levels of word knowledge?
What are the different types of word learning?
-learning a new word and new meaning.
-learning a meaning for a new word representing a known concept.
-learning the meaning of a new word representing an unknown concept.
What is text comprehension?
it is the whole reason for reading, otherwise students are simply decoding words.
What do students who comprehend text do?
-they have a purpose for reading.
-they actively think about the reading they are doing (metacognition)
What does the research say about effective text comprehension instruction?
-can be improved by instruction that helps readers use specific strategies.
-graphic organizers can help comprehension.
-answering questions provides purpose, helps focus.
-self generating questions.
-recognize story structure provides context.
-summarizing in the readers own words.
What is the concept of print carrying meaning?
-the idea that printed words carry meaning and represent concepts that can be spoken.
-everday items should be labled at "child-level".
What are some strategies for promoting the understanding of the relationship between spoken words and written language?
-having "word charts" in the class, that keep a running record of new words, letters etc.
-lableing everything int he class.
-reading oversized books.
-manipulative letters and words lessons.
What is the role of enviornmental print in developing print awareness?
-enables children to conncet every day objects in the their sphere of knowledge to the printed words.
-children can cut out or crete symbols from breakfast food containers, menus, newspapers etc and put them in an environmental print book.
How/why do you develop book handleing skills?
Marie Clay theorist
-transmits that print carries meaning.
-transmits that letters can be formed to make words.
children should be taught explictily how to handle a book, pointing out the covers, table of contents, title page, how to hold the book, where reading starts in the book.
What are some strategies for promoting an understanding of the directionality of print?
-explicitly modeling where the sentence begins.
-Pointing to words as you read (using pointers)
-can/should be taught when reading as well.
What are some strategies for promoting the ability to track print in connected texts?
-posting familiar texts at "kid-level".
-pointing to words as they are read.
-copy familiar readings on cards and have students reassemble them.
-sing-songs tailored to punctuation, capitalization etc.
What are some strategies for promoting letter knowledge and letter formation?
-have students sort word cards based on "all words that start with 'R'".
-copy student's names on the board, as how many "R's" there are, how many letter appear in a row. etc.
What are some strategies for promoting an understanding of he alphabetic prinicple?
-create signs for the class, tell the students what you are doing and what the signs mean.
-bring in familiar items such as cereal boxes and discuss the letter that are on the box.
-Read alphabet books that show a picture of the letter and a picture of a common object associated with that letter.
What are some strategies for teaching letter-sound correspondance and alphabetic knowledge to indivdual students?
-selecting materials that are relevant to the student's environment.
What are some strategies for helping students decode single-syllable words that follow commons pattersn and multi-syllabic words?
-Songs that have syllablic rhymes.
-Encourage students to bring in multisyllable words for their environment.
-Direct teaching of of common patterns.
-Use analogy strategy, "thunder", "thun" is like "sun", "der" is like "her".
What are some methods for promoting and assessing the use of phonics generalizations to decode words in connected text?
-look for spelling patterns that you know.
-are there smaller words, inside the word, that you many know?
-Self monitor reading.
-sound out.
What are sementic cues to help decode words?
-knowledge of word meanings.
-context of passage.
-what word doesn't seem to fit?
What are syntatic cues?
-how language wounds.
-what word starts with that sound?
What is the relationship between decoding and encoding?
children must be able to read (decode) a word in order to know which word to write (encode).
What is the relationship between oral vocabulary and the process of decoding written words?
If a student does not know hoe to use a word (meaning/pronunciation), decoding the word will be very difficult. Comprehension, if the word is decoded, may not be there.
How do individual students use phonics skills?
-it is difficult for ELL students to use syntactic and semantic cuing systems.
-pair highly skilled peers with less profienct ones.
-direct teaching of skills.
What is structural analysis?
a process of examining the words in ta text for word units (affixes, prefixes, base words)
What is a word study group?
small group based on student's needs. Deals with structural analysis.
What are discussion circles?
After a text is read the teacher prompts the student, perhaps asking for funny or unusual words.
common sayings, proverbs, idioms?
-Fortune Cookies-
-give out fortune cookies.
-model reading the fortune.
-make fortunes part of a word wall.
-have children write their own fortunes for friends of family.
What are some strategies to teach foreign words and abbreviations?
-cut out common foreign words from common sources, menus, etc.
-have children pick one of these words to look.
-create a word wall, or book.
What are some strategies for clarifying and extending a reader's understanding of unfamiliar words?
-include students in construct word webs, based on these words.
-include student's own definitions.
-use semantic feature analysis
What are some strategies for promoting comprehension across the curriculum by expanding knowledge of content area vocabluary?
-create a "T-bar" graph to list common synonyms of words, including word meanings from other content areas.
-create a vocabulary matrix (list of words, definitions, related words, word in a sentence and a visual picture.
How does reading construct meaning?
readers interact with the material. They bring their own experiences and interpret the author's ideas through the lens of their own.
-readers use schema to do this.
What strategies help in promoting comprehension of imaginative and literary texts?
-Read sections of a text, write a quick response.
How do you develop literary response skills?
-create a positive, afirming atmosphere.
-prepping to read; activating prior knowledge, new concepts are taught, a purpose is set.
-small group discussions, questions generated.
-response journals.
How do you develop literary analysis skills?
-explicitly teach different styles.
-teacher reads
-students determine what type of book it is, record responses.
-teacher then asks students how to story would change if it were in a different style.
How do you use comprehension strategies before, during and after reading?
-prompts should be posted around the room.
-story boards
How do you use oral language activities to promote comprehension?
-oral questioning
What is the role of oral reading fluency in facilitating comprehension?
-teacher should model propper inflection and energy when reading to class.
How can writing activies promote leracy response and analysis?
-retell story from a different character's perspective.
-act out book.
-newspaper from a given section of the book.
What are the levels of reading comprehension and strategies for promoting comprehension of information and expository texts?
CORE (Model- Connect, Organize, Reflect, Extend).
Connect with prior knowledge, Organize, text structure is explicitly taught, Reflect as they read, Extend, questions further reasearch.
What are some strategies for IDing point of view, fact from fiction and detecting faulty reasoning?
-comparing newspaper stories.
-critiquing cartoons.
-advertisement critiques.
-show how some ideas can be proven and others can't.
What are some strategies for different texts?
skimming (internet, schience books, etc)
-table of contents, index, etc
- cations, illustrations.
What are the uses of oral language strategies to promote comprehension?
What are writing activities to promote comprehension?
CLOZE- fill in missing words as you read.
What are the different text structures?
-Enumeration text- lists
-Time Sequence
-Compare and contrast
-Cuase and effect
What are some ways that students can apply reading comprehension skills for different purposes?
-narrative texts
All for the same material.