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56 Cards in this Set

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Research participants were injected with this which made them feel jittery
epinephrine
Next to the hippocamus, controls the fear response
amygdala
Made up of the amygdala, hippocamus, thalamus, and other structures. emotion center in the brain
The limbic system
babies crying in response to other babies crying is this emotion
empathy
A researcher conducts a study of the effects of drinking or not drinking coffee on calculus test scores in a group of college students. In this study, the calculus test scores are the
dependent variable
The purpose of informed consent is to tell participants
what the study will involve and what the relevant risks are, and to inform participants that they are free to leave the study if they wish
A right-handed, split-brain patient is briefly shown a picture of an ashtray in the right visual field. When asked to say what he saw, he
says "An ashtray."
Which of the following cannot be used for signaling the intensity of a stimulus?
Amplitude of action potentials
_________ is a process by which used neurotransmitters are ejected from the postsynaptic receptors, sucked back into presynaptic axon terminals and repackaged into new synaptic vesicles.
Synaptic reuptake
__________ provide supportive scaffolding for nerve cells and assist in the repair of damaged brain tissue
Glial cells
The cerebellum is part of the _________.
hindbrain
When are we most likely to feel sated and stop eating?
When the liver converts glucose to glycogen
What can be said about glucoreceptors
Glucoreceptors detect glucose levels in the blood.
Cholecystokinin (CKK) is a _________ that _________ eating
hormone; decreases
According to the dual-center theory, where is the "go eat" center for feeding?
In the lateral region of the hypothalamus
What happened to rats whose brains were lesioned in the lateral region of the hypothalamus?
They refused to eat, and starved to death unless they were forcefed
Where is the stop region for eating according to the dual-center theory?
ventromedial region of the hypothalamus
What is a typical characteristic of anorexia nervosa?
An obsession with thinness
What EEG waves are most characteristic of people who are alert and wide-awake?
Low voltage waves that are high in frequency
Which brainwaves characterize the deeper stages of sleep?
Those that are high voltage and low frequency
How does REM sleep compare with slow-wave sleep?
REM sleep involves inactivated body muscles and less sensitivity to external stimuli than slow-wave sleep
Rosetta sets her alarm clock to "medium loud" at the start of the semester. The first few times it rings, she hears it and jumps out of bed immediately. By the second week of classes, Rosetta sleeps right through the alarm until she resets it to "really loud."What is this an example of?
Habituation
Professor James was hoping to get a lot of work done on the train. Unfortunately, he was seated next to a bunch of rambunctious children. At first he found it difficult to concentrate, but gradually he was able to ignore the noise completely. In terms of learning terminology, what type of process has occurred?
Habituation
Which observation was most directly responsible for redirecting Pavlov's research from the study of digestive reflexes to investigations of conditioning?
The finding that stimuli that were initially neutral could eventually elicit digestive reflexes
A(n) _________ is elicited by a stimulus regardless of an animal's history of experiences
unconditioned reflex
Which of the following is the best example of classical conditioning?
Sam underwent a painful dental procedure and now his palms sweat when he sees the door to his dentist's office.
When the relationship between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus is severed, the conditioned response diminishes. What is this known as?
Extinction
What is the definition of psychology?
The scientific study of mental functions. Trying to explain why we do the things we do.
What are the two components of psychology?
Scientific component: understanding cognition, behavior, and affect
Practical component:
use what is learned to benefit individuals, groups, and society
What are some of the different perspectives on psychology?
example emotion: can be looked at through subjective experience, biology, or social environment, also developmental, pyschopathological, and cultural
What are some ways of knowing?
Authority; some one says so and you believe it
consensus; what your friends say
Past experience; what you have already experienced
Observations; what you see
What are constructs?
Things we cannot directly see but use to explain behavior. Like love or leadership or intelligence
What is operationalism?
We can measure anything.

But our measurements will always be imperfect.

operationalzation; the way scientists go about measuring constructs
What are confounds?
Uncontrolled factors that can influence results.
What are correlation studies?
Used when you are not able to manipulate some independent variables. Can show a relationship but but a causality. Is there a third variable??
What is reliability?
The extent to which a measurement is free from random error.
Kinds of reliability?
Internal validity; extent to which the research design allows us to determine the casual relationship between independent and dependent variables.
What makes up the central nervous system?
The brain and spinal cord.
What are the divisions of the peripheral nervous system and their functions?
Somatic (voluntary muscle movements-skeletal muscles)
Autonomic (involuntary muscles, innervates organs) further divided into the parasympathetic (rest and digest) and sympathetic nervous systems (fight of flight)
What makes up the hindbrain?
medulla (cardiovascular, respiratory systmes), pons (ears, eyes, tongue, small movements), and cerebellum (balance, coordination, alcohol disrupts),

regulates bodily functions
What makes up the forebrain?
Thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, basal ganglia
What is the midbrain responsible for ?
arousal, sleep-wake cycle, and auditory and visual targeting, body temperature, pain, pricks ears in dogs, birds is larger
What does the hypothalamus control?
eating and sex drive along with much of the endocrine system and autonomic nervous systems
What does the limbic system control?
emotion and motivation through the amygdala and hippocampus.
Why are basal ganglia important?
They are responsible for smooth body motions. Degeneration results in Parkinson's or Huntingson's diseases
What is meant by localization of function and primary motor projection areas?
Different regions of the cortex control different functions and that some of these are departure points for muscle movement signals. If you stimulate a primary projection area it makes the muscle twitch.
What is apraxia?
disorder in which the initiation or organization of tasks is disrupted.
What is agnosia?
Disorder in which the connection between familiar objects and recognition is jumbled. caused by lesions in certain areas. Prosopagnosia; inability to recognize faces
What is aphasia?
Disorder of speaking. Broca's area affected nonfluent speech but understanding.
Wernike's area affected fluent but questionable understanding
what did Phineus gage show?
Prefrontal cortex houses the personality.
what is acetylcholine resposible for?
Neurotransmitter which controls muscle contraction.
What is serotonin for?
Neurotransmitter which controls mood, sleep, and arousal
What is glutamate for?
Long term memory and pain perception
What is GABA for?
Gamma amino butyric acid, body's main inhibitory neurotransmitter
What is an agonist?
Something that enhances a neurotransmitter, can block reuptake, counteract the clean-up, or increase the precursors.
What is an antagonist?
Impedes a neurotransmitter's action. Speed reuptake, block receptors, cause less production