Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Von Neumann Architecture
Has memory: stores and retrieves instructions and data

a central Processing Unit with control unit( fetch instruction from memory, decode, execute)
and Arithetic Logic Unit (mathmatic calculations)

Von Neumann Bottleneck
memory speed is much slower than CPU ( 400/800 MHz at 3.8 GHz)
Fetching cycle for Von Neumann architecture
1) obtain instruction
2) Decode what fixed instuction it is
3) Operand (fetch necessary data)
4) execute
5) store result
6) repeat
Universal Computing Architecture
* Von Neumann (by practice)
-universal (tested in practice)
-structured (resource inefficiencies)
*Turing (by theory; standard one)
-universal (in theory)
-unstructured (resource efficient)
-was not, could be(?) used in practice
Turing Machine
minimalist model of mathematical reasoning and computing
-formal model of computational device to model any computable function.
TM components
* infinite tape (memory. moves left or right)
*read/write head
*finite control unit
operations of TM
-head reads symbol
-head then can move left/right
-computational steps overwrite last symbol read
-moving head and output depends on
1) current symbol on tape
2) 'state of mind' of device
Formal notation
∑- denotes the alphabet
must contain △ and cannot contain →or ←
△ is the initial cell
three types of transitions
Overwrite current cell (I)
((s,a),(q,b)) if machine is in state s and current cell has a then jump to state q and write b in current cell
move right (II)
if in state s and current cell has an a then jump to state q and move the header one cell to the right
Haulting Problem
because assume that can construct a TM that could determine if any TM halted on ANY input was possible
-> theoretically this cannot be possible.
halting problem can be solved on many imput data but not all
-implication is that cannot decide whether an arbitrary input program ends in an infinite loop.
Goedel's incompleteness theorem
Not all true statements about arithmetic are provable by any finite set of axioms
Human-computer interface
-human's function in a continuous (analog) mode
-computers run in simulated discrete mode (digital)
-compatibility depends on the speed of digital mode (sampling of continuous signal)
can represent anything if can make it into a function
Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
is manipulation of signals using digital techniques
goes through ADC→DSP→DAC→output signal
Analog into digital signal
sampling frequency Fs= 1/ts (s being a subunit)
if characteristic time of signal variance changes with time, data compression can be obtained with non-uniform sampling (more points at faster oscillations)
Nyquist theorem
if the highest frequency component in a continuous sample is fm, then the signal can be sufficiently reproduced only with sampling frequency higher than 2 Fm
CPU( central processing unit)
-ALU(arithmetic logic, non numerical operations)
-Control Unit( performs all low level hadware operations)
-peripherals: external devices for sending in input or recieving output
-slots: interface for attaching internal devices (PCI)
-ports: interface for attatching external devices (USB)
CPU registers
temporarily store data read from memory (specialized memory or general purpose)
- accessible at high speeds
anything for processing is stored in registers
Instruction register (IR)- commands to be performed
Data Registers
-Data input for command operations
-program counter: register for instructions
memory buffer/data register: data traffic
collection of wires connecting together internal components of the computer to transfer data
-data bus: carries actual data bits
-addresss bus: transfers locations where to send data
-control bus: carries status information

advantages: versatile (allows to add new devices) and low cost
disadvantages: limited speed- communication bottle nect
different devices need various data rates.