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92 Cards in this Set

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In general terms, what is a fortified wine? How did fortified wines come about?
wine that has had spirit added to it
arrested fermentation
increased stability and longevity to survive long journeys by ship
What 2 years were important to Port and why?
Methuen treaty signed in 1703 - gave tax preferences to England for Portuguese wines.
1756 Delimitation of Port area to control fraud (dictated the area and amt you can produce. this was strictly controlled)
Who, historically dominated the Port industry?
English Shippers
How was Port "discovered"?
English discovered Portuguese monks adding brandy to produce a sweet wine
Where is Port produced? What is the climate like?
Portugal - Upper Douro Valley
Extreme Continental
Mountains block rain, dry
What is a limitation that Portugal has on irrigation?
Only allowed for young vines
Describe the soil types in the Upper Douro
Granite
Schist
Vertical Strata - roots go deep
Describe the Viticulture in the Upper Douro
Steep slopes
Terraced Vineyards
Re-structuring of vineyards to allow mechanization
Still lots of hand harvesting though
Describe the Beneficio system
Points system that determines the amt of Port that can be produced by a vineyard as well as the price. Based on:
Aspect
Slope
Soil
Location
Vine variety and age
Yield

Also look at stock you are holding
How many types of grapes are permitted in Port? Name the ones that are considered most important
48 permitted varieties

Superior:
Touriga Nacional
Tinta Barroca
Touriga Franca
Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)
Tinta Cao
Describe the general steps of Port production
Short maceration for rapid extraction of color, flavor, and tannin
Traditionally tread by foot in Lagares
Wine is separated from skins
Wine added to large tank 1/5 full containing 77% spirit
Fermentation stops
Wine aged in 600 liter casks called Pipes
What is a Pipe?
600 liter cask used for Port ageing
What manual process of Port production has been replaced with a more machine-based one?
Move from treading by foot in Lagares to Autovinification or Robotic Lagares (pumps over)
What are the 3 main types of Port? What determines the type?
Ruby
Tawny
White

Determined by amount of time in wood
What type of Port (in general) receives long wood aging?
Tawny
What are the types of Ruby Port?
Ruby
Reserve
Late Bottle Vintage
Vintage
Single Quinta Vintage
What types of Ruby Ports are meant to be drunk upon release?
Ruby, Reserve, Late-bottle Vintage
What types of Ruby Port have a declared vintage on them?
Vintage
What types of Ruby Port are from a single vintage? (whether declared or undeclared)
Vintage
Late Bottle Vintage
Single Quinta Vintage
What types of Ruby Port are aged for 2 - 3 years in wood? How about 4 - 5 years?
2-3 years = Vintage, Single Quinta Vintage

4-5 years = Late Bottle Vintage
Describe Ruby Port and Ruby Reserve Port. What is the main difference?
Both are blends of vintages and meant to be drunk upon release. Stewed Flavors.

Ruby is commercial quality whereas Reserve is high quality ruby.
Describe Late Bottle Vintage Port
Good quality
Single, but undeclared vintage (lesser year)
Aged 4-5 years in wood
Usually filtered before bottling
Ready to drink upon release
Describe Vintage Port
Finest quality
Only made when the shipper "declares" a vintage
All from same vintage
Deeply colored, tannic, and extremely concentrated
Demands aging in bottle
Can throw a heavy sediment
Can be made from multiple growers
Describe Single-Quinta Vintage Port
grapes from a single estate (quinta)
usually from an undeclared vintage
ages for 2-3 years in wood
will improve with ageing in bottle
What are the 3 types of Tawny Port?
Tawny
Indicated Age Tawny
Colheita
What types of Tawny Port are a blend of vintages?
Tawny
Indicated Age Tawny
True or false: ALL Tawnies are ready to drink upon release
TRUE
Does Tawny with Indication of Age refer to the year or vintage it is from?
No. The age refers to the average time all the wines in the blend have aged in the bottle
Describe White Port
blend of vintages
white grapes or red without maceration
range of sweetness styles
ready to drink upon release!
Describe Tawny Port
blend of vintages
lower quality wines made from lighter grape varieties
may be a blend of red and white grapes
good quality tawny has undergone intentional oxidization in wood
ready to drink upon release
Describe Tawny with an Indication of Age
blend of vintages
age refers to avg time all wines in blend have aged in wood
high quality
roasted nuts, figs, caramel flavors
ready to drink upon release (will not improve)
Describe Colheita
tawny port made froma single vintage
minimum 7 years + in wood ageing
very high quality
vintage year and bottling date will appear on bottle (drink 1 year after bottling)
ready to drink
Name the groups that were an early influence on Sherry
Romans, Christians, Moors
Who dominated the trade and is the most important market for Sherry?
English merchants dominated the trade.
England most important market
How would you describe market demand for Sherry?
it's varied
Where is the main region for Sherry production? What is the climate?
Southwest Spain
Arid Inlad with a strong Atlantic influence
Sub-tropical. Sun shines @ 300 days / year
High rainfall for Spain - 650mm
When does the area for Sherry production typically get its rain?
October to May
What are the 3 main soils for Sherry production? describe each in one word.
Albariza - limestone
Arenas - sand
Barro - clay
Describe Albariza soil. Why is it beneficial for Sherry? What are the drawbacks?
Very high chalk content
limestone soil. Finest include a proportion of sand and clay to limit chlorosis. The most calcareius are difficult due to chlorosis.
Absorbs rain in winter
Forms hard shell on top and stops evaporation.
Stores water for the summer.
reflects sun onto the vines.
Describe the viticulture of Sherry-producing regions
lime resistant rootstock (chlorosis resistant)
Moderate vine density (to provide water access)
Relatively high yields
What are the 3 main grape varieties for Sherry production?
Palomino
Pedro Ximenez
Moscatel
What is the most important grape for Sherry production?
Palomino
Incapable of producing fine wine anywhere else
over 90% of plantings
thin skin - susceptible to rot
Pick for acid and sugar levels
What are the 2 types of Palomino grapes? Which one is better for Sherry production?
Palmino de Jerez

Best = Palomino Fino
What is Flor?
Indigenous, film forming yeast that forms on the surface of wine
Protects wine from oxidization and imparts a strong flavor character (almond)
True or false: most sherry is fermented to dryness
True! They add the spirit after (this is what makes sherry and port different)
What % of spirit kills flor?
16%
Describe the vinification process of Sherry
grapes are pressed immediately after harvest
fermentation in stainless steel tanks or 600 liter oak casks (butts)
wines with strong flor growth become fino. wines with minimal or no flor become oloroso
After classification, Sherry is fortified.
What fortification % is Fino fortified to and why?
15.5% to encourage flor growth
What fortification % is Oloroso fermented to and why?
18% to kill flor
What is a capataz?
flor master!
Name the types of Fino Sherries
Fino
Manzanilla
Amontillado
What is the main difference between Flor Sherry and Manzanilla?
Fino sherry's flor dies and regrows due to heat whereas since it is cooler in Manzanilla, the flor remains thick throughout the year
Should fino sherries be served at room temperature or slightly chilled?
slightly chilled
Describe Fino sherry
Aged under a layer of flor
Pale color with flavors of brine, blanched almonds and olives
Drink soon after opening the bottle
Serve chilled with Olives and Almonds!
Describe Manzanilla Sherry
Fino-style
Aged on the coast at Sanlucar de Barrameda
Layer of flor thick throughout the year
Very pale with intense herbal and brine characteristics
serve chilled with white gazpacho and almonds!
What are the similarities and differences between Amontillado and Palo Cortado?
similarities:
both start as a Fino

differences:
amontillado is technically a fino, but its flor died naturally or it got fortified.
palo cortado is fuller in style
Describe Amontillado
Aged Flor
Flor has either died away naturally or wine has been fortified to kill flor
Pale golden brown with flavors of hazelnuts
Serve slightly chilled
What are the main types of Oloroso Sherries?
Oloroso
Palo Cortado
What is the major flavor difference between Oloroso and Fino?
Oloroso is oxidized and is stronger, darker, and richer than fino
Desribe Oloroso
Deliberately oxidized
Strong, dark, rich, dry
Classic food-pairing for Oloroso?
beef consomme
What is Palo Cortado?
Oloroso style
High quality wine that begins as a Fino but loses its flor
What is palest? fino, manzanilla, amontillado, oloroso, or palo cortado?
manzanilla
What is Pedro Ximenez?
type of sherry
grapes are allowed to raisin in the sun
a very dark, very sweet wine
often bottled as varietal wines
Define a Cream Sherry
any style of sherry that has been blended with sweet sherry such as pedro ximenez
True or false: madeira is produced in a range of sweetness styles
true
What countries / regions have historical importance with relation to madeira?
Americas
Britain
Describe why Madeira was originally produced
shipped all over the world. was a port for people leaving the mainland.
Where is Madeira and what is the climate?
Portuguese-owned island off the coast of Morocco
Tropical
Humid
Cloudy
Difficult to grow grapes
What is a risk for viticulture in Madeira and why?
Mildew b/c it is so humid
Powdery mildew and botrytis bunch rot are a constant threat
Describe the soil of Madeira and factors that have contributed to it
Volcanic
rich in potash
due to a 7 year fire
What is the viticulture of Madeira like?
Low trellises
Terraced vineyards (steep)
Hand harvesting (mechanized impossible)
Lots of spraying b/c of fungus
What are levadas
irrigation channels (madeira)
What is the most important grape variety in madeira production?
Tinta Negra Mole
(red)
What are the 4 noble grapes in madeira production? are they white or red?
Sercial
Verdelho
Bual
Malmsey (Malvasia)
How is the sweetness of Madeira determined?
Timing of fortification
What is Estufagem?
Process of cooking Madeira. Replicates the long voyage to India.
Methods = hot rooms (6 months), heated vats (using a coil takes 3 months at 40, 50, or 60 degrees)
Cheaper to use the coil
Wines have green rim and tangy flavors
High acid!
What indicates the style of Madeira?
Grape variety on the label
What are the styles of Madeira from dryest to sweetest?
Sercial
Verdhelo
Bual
Malmsey
Describe Sercial
Lightest and driest style (85%)
very high acid
develops almond character with time
can seem tart when young
very rare
Describe Verdelho
Off-dry to medium dry
Develops smoky character
noble madeira grape
Describe Bual
Rich, Medium sweet
Dark, rich, raisiny, retains acidity
Describe Malmsey (Malvasia)
Fully sweet and rich
What is VDN?
Vin Doux Naturals
From Southern France
Based on Muscat or Grenache
Made in the Port method
What are some important VDN's?
Muscat de Beaumes de Venise AC
Banyuls AC (Roussillon, like port made from Grenache)
Wines may be produced in an oxidized style known as Rancio
What is rancio?
Oxidizes style of fortified wines
What is the Italian fortified wine?
Marsala DOC from Sicily
What is the Australia fortified wine?
Liqueur Muscat & Tokay (muscadelle)
Rutherglen, Victoria (fortified muscat)
What fortified styles does S. Africa produce?
Mainly fortified Muscat and Port style wines
KWV
What fortified styles does the US produce?
Port style wines from zinfandel and other grape varieties
What is an aromatized wine?
flavored wine
herbs, spieces, and fruits
may also be fortified
i.e. vermouth, cinzano
What is Mistelles?
mixture of grape juice and alcohol
fermentation is prevented by the addition of spirit
Pineau des Charentes (cognac region)
Floc de Gascogne (armagnac)
add spirit before fermentation