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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what was the system used to distingush between two individuals before the use of fingerprints
bertillon system
what was the bertillon system based on and why did it become obsolete
a series of body measurements; because two prisoners had same names and were similar in every way possible
what structure makes a fingerprint and what is the purpose of these structures
ridge characteristics; to assist with gripage and to help sweat evaporate quicker
when were fingerprints developed as a forensics tool
it took off in europe in the 1800s
what two body fluids are a fingerprint composed of? (discuss the laying of fingerprints)
oils and sweat (water-based); when laying a fingerprint sweat and oils are left behind. (it begins heavy but evaporates and becomes lighter)
what are the three main classes in order, and their sub-categories
loops=60
radial loop (towards thumb)
ulnar loop (towards little finger)

whorls=30
double loop whorl
accidental whorl
plain whorl
central pocket whorl

arches=10
plain arch
tented arches
what is a compostite fingerprint
a mixture of two classes
list and define the classifications studied in class
bifurcations
deltas
islands
enclosures
ridge endings
if a fingerprint has no deltas...
arch
if a fingerprint has one delta...
loop
if a fingerprint has two or more deltas...
whorl
how many ridge characteristics are there in a normal fingerprint
150
how many ridge characteristics are needed to make a positive fingerprint match
8-16
what are some methods people have tried in altering their fingerprints
burning
acid
surgery
sandpaper
cutting
what other parts of the body have similar prints
whole hand and foot (including toes)
how many types of prints are in the henry system and how many combinations can be generated from it
10; 1024
how does the henry system work
its based on whorls and you get points for having a whorl at a certain place
who uses the henry system
fbi
what problem is solved by the adding of 1 to the henry system equation? what specific situation would lead to this requirement?
the problem of having a zero over a zero; if a person has no whorls
how is a plastic print documented/reserved?
covered with wax and the wax is then lifted away
how are visible prints documented/preserved?
photographed as close as possible
how are latent prints documented/preserved?
dusting or supergluing
what are the two classes of surfaces that latent prints can be found on?
porous and non-porous
what is AFIS and who uses it
automated fingerprint identification system; a trained professional
what does AFIS do to fingerprints
scans fingerprints in una computadora
what is the study of lip prints called
cheiloscopy
what are the five types of lip prints
diamond
short vertical grooves
long vertical grooves
branching
rectangular
besides giving visible prints, how can lipstick be used to identify someone
chromatography
what can be learned from a shoe print
size of suspect
type of shoe
age of shoe
distinctive walking styles
why can bite marks be used to id a suspect
because each person has a distinct pattern to their teeth
what are some distinguishing characteristics of someone's teeth
removals
particular shape to mouth
cavities
where can bite marks be found
food and skin
are bite marks useful in non-criminal forensics
yes, in identifying disaster victims (strong fires, bombs, collapsing buildings)
infallible
trustworthy
portrait parle
verbal descritption of a perpetrator's physical characterisitcs + dress provided by an eyewitness
impetus
moving force
outcome of united states v. byron c. mitchell case
human ridges are unique and permanent
iodine fuming
technique for visualizing latent fingerprints by exposing them to iodine vapors (porous surfaces)
sublimation
solid to gas
ninhydrin
chemical reagent used to develop latent fingerprints on porous materials
super glue fuming
technique for visualizing latent fingerprints on non-porous surfaces
physical developer
silver based chemical to "develop" prints like a picture